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Table 2 Distribution and WCST performance under standard or modified administration (verbalization) of subjects on atypical and classical AP treatment.

From: The effect of verbalization strategy on wisconsin card sorting test performance in schizophrenic patients receiving classical or atypical antipsychotics

WCST indexes WCST performance
  Total sample Good Poor Remediable
  Atypical AP (n = 33) Classical AP (n = 30) Atypical AP (n = 21) Classical AP (n = 19) Atypical AP (n = 5) Classical AP (n = 11) Atypical AP (n = 7)
Categories Achieved a, e, i        
Standard adm. 4.1 ± 2.4§ 3.8 ± 2.4* 5.8 ± 0.5 5.4 ± 1.2 0.0 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 1.0 2.0 ± 1.4§
Verbalization 5.0 ± 1.9 4.2 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.5 0.8 ± 1.3 1.5 ± 0.6 5.4 ± 0.7
Perseverative Errors b, f, l        
Standard adm. 13.8 ± 9.0 21.4 ± 13.5 10.5 ± 6.6# 18.7 ± 13.6§ 19.2 ± 7.8 26.0 ± 12.7§ 20.0 ± 12.0
Verbalization 6.9 ± 8.7 19.6 ± 22.2 2.7 ± 5.0 7.1 ± 12.1 18.8 ± 6.5 41.3 ± 18.7 11.0 ± 9.5
Total Errors c, g, m        
Standard adm. 27.1 ± 13.9# 35.0 ± 17.0 19.1 ± 8.3# 28.8 ± 16.9** 38.8 ± 8.9 45.8 ± 11.2* 42.8 ± 11.1*
Verbalization 17.3 ± 17.6 30.5 ± 27.5 8.1 ± 9.7 15.4 ± 19.8 46.6 ± 10.0 56.6 ± 17.6 23.9 ± 15.1
Unique Errors d, h, n        
Standard adm. 2.3 ± 5.6 1.5 ± 2.4§ 1.0 ± 2.4 1.2 ± 1.9* 1.6 ± 3.5 1.9 ± 3.1 6.7 ± 10.6
Verbalization 1.5 ± 4.1 0.1 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.6 0.0 ± 0.2 5.0 ± 8.6 0.1 ± 0.5 2.8 ± 4.5
  1. 2-way mixed ANOVAs
  2. Total sample
  3. AP treatment effect (A): a F = 1.0 NS; b F = 10.7 P < 0.0025; c F = 5.7 P < 0.025; d F = 1.8 NS.
  4. Remediation effect (B): a F = 14.6 P < 0.0005; b F = 5.6 P < 0.025; c F = 10.3 P < 0.0025; d F = 5.6 P < 0.025.
  5. A × B interaction: a F = 1.51 NS; b F = 2.04 NS; c F = 1.43 NS; d F = 0.47 NS
  6. Good performers
  7. AP treatment effect (A): e F = 1.5 NS; f F = 5.5 P < 0.025; g F = 4.8 P < 0.05; h F = 0.0 NS.
  8. Remediation effect (B): e F = 2.9 NS; f F = 35.1 P < 0.0005; g F = 26.4 P < 0.0005; h F = 7.0 P < 0.025.
  9. A × B interaction: e F = 1.1 NS; f F = 1.3 NS; g F = 0.2 NS; h F = 0.4 NS
  10. Poor performers
  11. AP treatment effect (A): i F = 4.9 p < 0.05; l F = 4.6 P < 0.05; m F = 1.7 NS; n F = 1.4 NS.
  12. Remediation effect (B): i F = 6.4 P < 0.025; l F = 4.9 P < 0.05; m F = 7.6 P < 0.025; n F = 0.6 NS.
  13. A × B interaction: i F = 0.2 NS; l F = 5.5 P < 0.05; m F = 0.2 NS; n F = 6.0 P < 0.05
  14. Paired t-tests Standard adm vs Verbalization: * P < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; § P < 0.005; # P < 0.0005