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Table 1 Demographic data of patients treated with Buprenorphine/Valproate (BPN/VPA) n = 12, and Clonidine/Carbamazepine (CLN/CBZ) n = 50.

From: Treatment of polydrug-using opiate dependents during withdrawal: towards a standardisation of treatment

  BPN/VPA – group CLN/CBZ – group
Gender: Male (%) 42% 76%
Mean age (range) 28 (21–41) 38 (26–44)
Substance use:   
   First time heroin use (mean age) 19 18
   First time injected drugs (mean age) 20 18
   Years of heroin use (mean years) 7 18
   Years of BZD use (mean years) 13 19
   Years of cannabis use (mean years) 14 22
   Years of amphetamine use (mean years) 7 19