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Table 2 Global outcomes

From: Effectiveness of second generation antipsychotics: A systematic review of randomized trials

Studies Main results (outcome measures)
FIRST EPISODE  
Crespo-Facorro et al. [24] No global outcomes
McEvoy et al. [25] O = Q = R (time to discontinuation for any cause, for inadequate therapeutic effect, for unacceptable side effects, for patients decision)
Robinson et al. [26] O = R (rate of discontinued intervention)
ACUTE PHASE  
Chrzanowski et al. [27] No global outcomes
Kraus et al. [28] O = R (Duration of hospitalisation)
McCue et al. [29] H = O = R > A = Q = Z (no longer needing acute in-patient care)(p < 0.0001)
A = H = O = Q = R = Z (time until treatment classified as effective, i.e. no longer needing acute in-patient care, medication ineffective as judged by discontinuation because of no significant improvement after at least 3 weeks of treatment, side-effects or significant deterioration of patient's mental state.)
CHRONIC PHASE  
Jerrel [30] O (p = 0.02) & R (p = 0.005) > FGA (total mental health treatment costs)1
O > R & FGA (odds of compliance) (p < 0.001)
O = R = FGA (psychosocial functioning (RFS), time to discharge and rehospitalisation, client satisfaction (CSQ)).
Lieberman et al. [31] O > Q (p < 0.001) & R (p = 0.002) (Time to discontinuation for any cause)
O > P (p < 0,001) = Q (p < 0.001) = R (p < 0.001) (Time to discontinuation for lack of efficacy)
O = Q = P = R = Z (Time to discontinuation for intolerable side effects)
O > Q (p < 0.001) = R (p = 0.008) (time to discontinuation due to patient's decision)
Q > Z > P > R > O (p < 0.001) (hospitalisation for exacerbation of schizophrenia)
Mullen et al. [32] No global outcomes
Ritchie et al. [33] O = R (quality of life, except O > R for psychological well-being (p = 0.02)
Ritchie et al. [34] O > R (physical health (p = 0.03), social relationships (p = 0.015); overall quality of life (p = 0.04), health satisfaction (p = 0.03))
O = R (psychological well-being, environmental domain)
Rosenheck et al. [35] O = Q = R = Z > P (total health care costs) (p < 0.001)
O & Q & R & Z > P (total medication costs) (p < 0.0001)
O > Q & R & Z (drug costs) (p = ?)
P > R (Quality Adjusted Life Years ratings) (p < 0.005)
O = P = Q = R = Z (quality of life measures)
Stroup et al. [36] O = R > Q (p < 0.05) = Z (p < 0.01) (time to discontinuation for any cause)
O = Q = R = Z (time to discontinuation for lack of efficacy/for intolerable side effects)
O > Q = Z (time to discontinuation for patients who previously discontinued SGA due to inefficacy) (p < 0.01)
R > Q (time to discontinuation for patients who previously discontinued SGA due to inefficacy) (p < 0.05)
Q > Z > R > O (p = 0.02) (hospitalisation for exacerbation of schizophrenia)
Stroup et al. [37] O (p = 0.02) = Q (p = 0.04) > R (Time to discontinuation for all causes)
O = Q = R (cause of discontinuation)
Swartz et al. [38] O = P = Q = R = Z (change in the Quality of life total and subscores at 6, 12 and 18 months)
Tunis et al. [39] O = R = FGAs (total costs)
O > R & FGA (antipsychotic costs) (p < 0.001)
R (p < 0.001) > FGA (p < 0.001) > O(rate of switching from assigned antipsychotic agent)
O > R (p = 0.002) & FGA (p = 0.043) (mean social responder days 2)
  1. Abbreviations: A = Aripiprazole, FGAs = First generation antipsychotics, H = Haloperidol, O = Olanzapine, P = Perphenazine, Q = Quetiapine, R = Risperidone, Z = Ziprasidone CSQ-8 = the Client Satisfaction Questionaire-8; RFS = the Role Functioning Scale
  2. 1 Total mental health treatment costs: Inpatient, outpatient and psychiatric medication costs.
  3. 2 Social response is defined as maintaining a high level of satisfaction with social relationships (for patients reporting a baseline score of at least 18), or by improving at least 33% of possible improvement.
  4. ? = The authors state that the difference is significant, but do not reveal the p-value for this comparison.