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Table 3 Symptoms of disease

From: Effectiveness of second generation antipsychotics: A systematic review of randomized trials

Studies Main results (rating scales/outcome measures)
FIRST EPISODE  
Crespo-Facorro et al. [24] O = R = H (CGI-S, BPRS, SAPS, SANS, HAM-D, CDS, YMRS, response 1 rate, mean time to response)
McEvoy et al. [25] O = Q = R (PANSS total change)
O > Q (PANSS positive subscale reduction) (p = 0.013)
O = Q = R (response rate 2)
Robinson et al. [26] O = R (cumulative response 3 rates, mean time to response)
O = R (delusions, hallusinations, thought disorders (SADS-C+PD positive symptoms items); affective flattening, alogia, avolition-apathy, asociality-anhedonia (SANS))
R > O (mean length of time that subjects maintained the of responder status) (CI= 8.6-10.4 vs. 5.6-7.7)
ACUTE PHASE  
Chrzanowski et al. [27] A = O (PANSS, CGI-I)
Kraus et al. [28] No outcomes
McCue et al. [29] A = H = O = Q = R = Z (BPRS change)
CHRONIC PHASE  
Jerrel [30] O = R = FGA (PANSS, BPRS, DIS-III-R Depression and Mania symptoms)
Lieberman et al. [31] O = P = Q = R = Z (PANSS, CGI)
O > Q (p < 0.001) & R (p = 0.002) & P (p = 0.013) (duration of successful treatment 4)
R > Q (duration of successful treatment) (p = 002)
Mullen et al. [32] Q = R (PANSS)
Q > R (HAM-D) (p = 0.028)
Q = R (CGI-I)
Ritchie et al. [33] O = R (BPRS, SANS, MADRS, MMSE)
Ritchie et al. [34] O = R (BPRS, SANS, MADRS, MMSE)
Rosenheck et al. [35] O = P = Q = R = Z (PANSS)
Stroup et al. [36] O > Q (p = 0.005) & Z (p = 0.005) (PANSS)
O > Q (p < 0.001) & Z (p < 0.001) & R (p < 0.02) (PANSS positive symptoms)
R > Z (p < 0.03) (PANSS positive symptoms)
O = Q = R = Z (CGI)
Stroup et al. [37] O = Q = R (PANSS)
O = Q = R (CGI at endpoint)
Swartz et al. [38] No outcomes
Tunis et al. [39] O > FGA (mean clinical responder days 5) (p = 0.025)
  1. Abbreviations: A = Aripiprazole, FGAs = First generation antipsychotics, O = Olanzapine, P = Perphenazine, Q = Quetiapine, R = Risperidone, Z = Ziprasidone, CGI-I = Clinical Global Improvement Scale, CGI = CGI-S = Clinical Global Impressions- Severety of Illness Scale, PANSS = the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale, BPRS = the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, SAPS = the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS = the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, DIS-III-R = Diagnostic Interview Schedule III-R Depression and Mania Modules, HAM-D = the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, MADRS = the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, MMSE = Mini-mental state examination.
  2. 1 Response = 40% or greater BPRS total improvement from baseline.
  3. 2Response = ≤ 3 for all PANSS items and = 3 for the CGI-S.
  4. 3 Response = mild or better on SADS-C+PD positive symptoms items plus CGI much or very much improved.
  5. 4 Successful treatment time is defined as number of months of treatment in which patients had a CGI Scale score of at least 3 or a score of 4 with an improvement of at least two points from baseline.
  6. 5 Clinical response is defined as a BPRS score less than 18.
  7. Subanalyses on efficacy measures are omitted
  8. [24], [25] and [27] provide analyses on both last observation carried forward (LOCF) and observed cases. The main findings are the same, but only p-values for LOCF data are displayed in the table.