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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies.

From: Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis

Study N° Subjects N° Controls Mean Age % Women Country Type of training Type of Subjects Instrument Individual/group Homework Duration Session Effect size BT Effect size WT
* Kanji, White,& Ernst [16] 30 29 64,5 36,7 UK Autogenic Training Patients undergoing coronary angioplasty Stai – State anxiety Group Yes 2 Months ND 0,470 0,513
* Tomioka & Kubo [50] 21 12 43,3 72,7 Japan Autogenic Training Psychosomatic patients Stai – State anxiety Group Yes 8 Weeks 8 0,318 0,399
* Pawlow, O'Neil & Malcolm [21] 10 10 38 90 USA Progressive Relaxation Night Eaters Stai – State anxiety Group Yes 1 Day 1 1,358 1,305
* Yung, Fung, Chan, & Lau [24] 17 30 37 100 Hong Kong Stretch Release Relaxation Group; Nurses Stai – State anxiety Group Yes 4 Weeks 4 0,397 0,210
* Yung, Fung, Chan, & Lau [24] 18      Cognitive Relaxation      4 Weeks 4 0,623 0,331
*Roykulcharoen & Good [23] 51 51 42 82,3 Thailand Systematic Relaxation Patients underwent abdominal surgery Stai – State anxiety Individual No 1 Day 1 0,176 0,371
* McComb & Clopton [51] 26 24 19 100 USA Autogenic Training and Visualization Pazients affected by bulimia nervosa Stai – State anxiety Group No 8 Weeks 8 0,030 0,262
* Deckro et al. [52] 46 44 24 60,2   Relaxation response and other cognitive-behavioral techniques Students Stai – State anxiety Group Yes 6 Weeks 6 0,700 0,575
* Pawlow & Jones [20] 44 15 23,2 47,8 USA Progressive Relaxation Students Stai – State anxiety Individual No 1 Day 1 1,389 1,054
* Knowlton & Larkin [53] 12 12 20,8 100 USA Progressive Relaxation, recommended voice "Very anxious" students Stai – State anxiety Individual No 1 Day 1 0,160 0,731
* Knowlton & Larkin [53] 12      Progressive Relaxation, conversational voice      1 Day 1 0,537 1,491
* Knowlton & Larkin [53] 12      Systematic Relaxation      1 Day 1 0,497 0,929
Wachholtz & Pargament [54] 22   19,40 63,6 USA Unspecified Relaxation Students Stai – Trait anxiety Individual Yes 2 Weeks 2   0,188
Wachholtz & Pargament [54] 25   18,90 76   Spiritual Meditation      2 Weeks 2   0,679
Wachholtz & Pargament [54] 21   19,10 61,9   Secular Meditation      2 Weeks 2   0,211
* Bagheri-Nesami, Mohseni-Bandpei, & Azar [55] 26 24 48 96 Iran Benson's Technique Rheumatoid arthritis patients Stai – State anxiety Individual Yes 8 Weeks 1 0,950 1,200
* Rasid &Parish [56] 18 17 18 50 USA Behavioral Relaxation High school students Stai – State anxiety Group Yes 2 Weeks 4 0,900  
* Rasid &Parish [56] 20   18 55   Progressive Relaxation   Stai – State anxiety Group Yes 2 Weeks 4 0,900  
Wright, Courtney, & Crowther [57] 18   40 ND Irland Autogenic Training Patients with cancer Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale – HADS; Group Yes 10 Weeks 10   1,350
* Boyce, Talley, Balaam, Koloski, & Truman [58] 19 25 42,3 81 Australia Progressive Relaxation Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale – HADS; Individual Yes 4 Weeks 4 0,096 0,411
* Norton, Holm, & McSherry [59] 17 16 20,3 70 USA Progressive Relaxation Students State-Trait Personality Inventory Individual Yes 2 Weeks 2 0,265 1,138
Carlbring, Ekselius, & Andersson [60] 11   37,4 63 Sweden Applied relaxation Pazients with panic Beck Anxiety Inventory Individual Yes 7 Months 9   0,950
Muhlberger, Herrmann, Wiedemann, Ellgring [61] 15   42,2 86,7 Germany Progressive Relaxation after the exposure of Virtual Reality Flight phobics Anxiety Expectancy Scale Individual No 1 Weeks 4   0,072
Viens, De Koninck, Mercier, St-Onge, & Lorrain [62] 10   36,1 80 Canada Progressive Relaxation, management of anxiety Subjects with sleep disorders Stai – State anxiety Individual Yes 9 Weeks 1   0,865
* Davidson et al [63] 25 16 36 76 USA Meditation Employers Stai – Trait anxiety Group Yes 8 Weeks 8 0,747 0,545
* Lukins, Davan, & Drummond [64] 43 52 47 50,8 Australia Imaginative Relaxation Patients undergoing magnetic resonance Stai – State anxiety Individual No 1 Day 1 0,526 0,174
* Lukins, Davan, & Drummond [64] 44      Imaginative Relaxation with re-calling during MRI      1 Day 2 0,384 0,050
* Cheung, Molassiotis, & Chang [17] 8 10 48,8 37,5 Hong Kong Progressive Relaxation Patients after stoma surgery Stai – State anxiety Individual Yes 1 Day 2 0,479  
Kominars [65] 76   nd nd USA Progressive Relaxation and Visualization Patients alchol addicted Stai – State anxiety Group nd 3 Weeks 6   1,010
Arntz [31] 20   35,9 60 Netherland Applied relaxation Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder Stai – Trait anxiety Individual Yes 12 Weeks 12   0,369
Engel & Andersen [66] 8   48,5 37,5 Denmark Guided Relaxation and Meditative Streching Patients with chronic toxic encephalopathy Stai – State anxiety Group No 8 Weeks 8   0,549
* Jablon, Naliboff, Gilmore, & Rosenthal [67] 10 10 58,9 50 USA Progressive Relaxation and EMG biofeedback Patients with type II diabetes Stai – State anxiety Individual Yes 4 Weeks 4 0,254 0,412
* Clarl et al. [68] 19 20 31,95 44 UK Applied relaxation Patients with social phobia Beck Anxiety Inventory Individual Yes 14 Weeks 14 0,949 1,029
* Lowe et al. [69] 20 20 63,1 20 Germany Progressive Relaxation Patients After Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Group No 1 Week 2 0,189 -0,061
  1. * = Studies with control group