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Table 2 Treatment variables by treatment cohort

From: Use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines in patients with psychiatric emergencies: Results of an observational trial

Parameter [statistic] All patients Olanzapine vs. non-olanzapine Risperidone vs. non-risperidone Haloperidol vs. non-haloperidol
   OLZ Non-OLZ   RIS Non-RIS   HAL Non-HAL  
  (N = 558) (N = 390) (N = 168) p-value (N = 72) (N = 486) p-value (N = 132) (N = 426) p-value
Previous pharmacological treatment a           
Any previous medication
n (%)
291 (52.2) 191 (49.0) 100 (59.5) 0.022 45 (62.5) 246 (50.6) 0.060 64 (48.5) 227 (53.3) 0.335
Any antipsychotic
n (%)
214 (38.4) 130 (33.3) 84 (50.0) < .001 38 (52.8) 176 (36.2) 0.007 52 (39.4) 162 (38.0) 0.778
Olanzapine, n (%) 52 (9.3) 48 (12.3) 4 (2.4)   5 (6.9) 47 (9.7)   13 (9.8) 39 (9.2)  
Risperidone, n (%) 50 (9.0) 26 (6.7) 24 (14.3)   30 (41.7) 20 (4.1)   11 (8.3) 39 (9.2)  
Haloperidol, n (%) 45 (8.1) 30 (7.7) 15 (8.9)   5 (6.9) 40 (8.2)   25 (18.9) 20 (4.7)  
Quetiapine, n (%) 19 (3.4) 6 (1.5) 13 (7.7)   0 (0.0) 19 (3.9)   4 (3.0) 15 (3.5)  
Any benzodiazepine
n (%)
106 (19.0) 75 (19.2) 31 (18.5) 0.830 10 (13.9) 96 (19.8) 0.236 22 (16.7) 84 (19.7) 0.435
Lorazepam, n (%) 51 (9.1) 36 (9.2) 15 (8.9)   6 (8.3) 45 (9.3)   14 (10.6) 37 (8.7)  
Diazepam, n (%) 43 (7.7) 29 (7.4) 14 (8.3)   3 (4.2) 40 (8.2)   7 (5.3) 36 (8.5)  
Mood stabilizer
n (%)
67 (12.0) 48 (12.3) 19 (11.3) 0.939 7 (9.7) 60 (12.3) 0.568 11 (8.3) 56 (13.1) 0.141
Antidepressants
n (%)
64 (11.5) 47 (12.1) 17 (10.1) 0.679 8 (11.1) 56 (11.5) 0.976 9 (6.8) 55 (12.9) 0.056
Antipsychotic monotherapy
n (%)
227 (40.7) 183 (46.9) 44 (26.2) < .001 13 (18.1) 214 (44.0) < .001 11 (8.3) 216 (50.7) < .001
Concomitant benzodiazepine use           
Any benzodiazepine use
n (%) [95% CI (%)]
389 (69.7) [65.7–73.5] 268 (68.7) [63.9–73.3] 121 (72.0) [64.6–78.7] 0.436 52 (72.2) [60.4–82.1] 337 (69.3) [65.0–73.4] 0.620 110 (83.3) [75.9–89.3] 279 (65.5) [60.8–70.0] < .001
Lorazepam, n (%) 248 (44.4) 177 (45.4) 71 (42.3)   35 (48.6) 213 (43.8)   65 (49.2) 183 (43.0)  
Diazepam, n (%) 175 (31.4) 109 (27.9) 66 (39.3)   29 (40.3) 146 (30.0)   75 (56.8) 100 (23.5)  
Other, n (%) 64 (11.5) 38 (9.7) 26 (15.5)   12 (16.7) 52 (10.7)   12 (9.1) 52 (12.2)  
Benzodiazepine doseb
mean (SD), mg
81.3 (58.1) 77.9 (52.5) 89.0 (68.5) 0.081 86.4 (72.5) 80.6 (55.6) 0.497 76.4 (50.6) 83.3 (60.8) 0.296
  1. a Patients may have received more than one previous pharmacological medication.
  2. b Cumulative dose over the complete study period in mg diazepam equivalents.
  3. Abbreviations: OLZ = olanzapine, RIS = risperidone, HAL = haloperidol.