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Table 3 Changes in clinical symptom scales and sleep parameters after CBT presented for the separate subgroups.

From: Discontinuation of hypnotics during cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia

  Hypnotics non-abusing
(N = 13)
Hypnotics abusing
(N = 15)
Significance
Insomnia Severity Index [ISI] -5.7 (s.d. 4.93) -6.9 (s.d. 3.97) p = 0.48a
Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] -2.00 (IQR -4.0 – 0)* -1.5 (IQR -2.5 – 0.25)* p = 0.43b
Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] -4.33 (s.d. 4.53) -3.50 (s.d. 3.94) p = 0.61a
Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI] -5.00 (s.d. 4.60) -4.71 (s.d. 5.77) p = 0.88a
Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAMD] -4.0 (IQR -9.0 – -2.0)* -3.50 (IQR -9.75 – -2.75)* p = 0.98b
modified Clinical Global Impression Improvement [mCGI-I] 4.0 (IQR 3.0–5.0)* 3.0 (IQR 2.0–4.0)* p = 0.16b
Total sleep time TST [min] 84.60 (s.d. 101.36) 83.28 (s.d. 137.99) p = 0.98a
Sleep latency SL [min] -12.25 (IQR -25.0 – 2.0)* -17.00 (IQR -31.68 – -5.75)* p = 0.48b
Sleep efficiency SE (%) 6.16 (s.d. 6.12) 19.95 (s.d. 25.0) p = 0.02 a
Wake after sleep onset WASO (min) -25.81 (s.d. 28.69) -36.86 (s.d. 71.94) p = 0.003 a
Stage 1 [min] -4.20 (s.d. 21.17) -2.64 (s.d. 26.11) p = 0.87a
Stage 2 [min] -3.43 (s.d. 56.79) -4.88 (s.d. 49.25) p = 0.94a
Stage 3+4 [min] 68.34 (s.d. 98.00) 61.90 (s.d. 86.46) p = 0.86a
REM [min] 45.88 (s.d. 69.41) 36.23 (s.d. 52.13) p = 0.68a
  1. In most cases change is expressed as the mean difference (standard deviation) between values obtained after and before therapy. Characters in bold indicate significance (p < 0.05).
  2. * Data are presented as median (interquartile range) due to non-normal data distribution
  3. a – One-way ANOVA; b – Mann-Whitney U Test;
  4. IQR – interquartile range; s.d. – standard deviation; N.S. – non significant