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Table 1 Characteristics and quality of studies included in living conditions domain

From: A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems

Study (Country) Type(s) of Mental Illness Number of Participants Type of Study
(Type of Setting)
Quality Assessment
Baker & Douglas 1990 (USA) Mostly schizophrenia 729 Cohort study (supported and unsupported community housing) 10/14
Brunt & Hansson 2002 (Sweden) Severe mental illness 33 patients
50 staff
Cross-sectional study (small group homes) 8/14
Corrigan 1990 (USA) Severe mental illness Not applicable Descriptive review (hospital ward and outpatient settings) 6/14
Cournos 1987 (USA) Chronic mental illness Not specified Descriptive review (community residential settings) 6/14
Cullen et al. 1997 (UK) Not specified 42 Cross-sectional study (hospital and community residential settings) 7/14
Dijkstra et al. 2006
(The Netherlands)
Not confined to mental health patients 5412 Systematic review (30 studies) (hospital-based settings) 12/14
Fakhoury et al. 2002 (UK) Severe and enduring mental illness 3,577 patients
166 staff
Systematic review (28 studies) (supported housing) 7/14
Fakhoury et al. 2005 (UK) Schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder 41 patients
39 staff
Cross-sectional study (supported housing) 5/5; 9/14
Hawthorne et al. 1994 (USA) Severe mental illness 104 Before and after study (community-based residential settings) 9/14
Johansson & Eklund 2004
(Sweden)
Minority schizophrenia 61 Cross-sectional study (psychiatric inpatient ward) 8/14
Kruzich & Kruzich 1985 (USA) Majority schizophrenia 87 Cross-sectional study (residential care settings) 10/14
Lehman et al. 2004 (USA) Schizophrenia Not applicable Clinical guidance (inpatient and outpatient settings) Not applicable
Mares et al. 2002 (USA) Severe mental illness 164 Cross-sectional study (board and care homes) 9/14
Rickard et al. 2002
(Spain and UK)
Functional psychotic illness 136 Cross-sectional study (community residences) 10/14
Santone et al. 2005 (Italy) Severely impaired patients 265 facilities Cross-sectional study (residential setting) 9/14
Shrivastava et al. 1999 (UK) Not specified Not specified Descriptive review (psychiatric unit) 6/14
Trauer et al. 2001 (Australia) Not specified 125 Cohort study (community care unit) 10/14
van Wel et al. 2003
(The Netherlands)
Not specified 129 Cross-sectional study (psychiatric hospital) 8/14