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Table 16 Characteristics and quality of studies included in restraint and seclusion domain

From: A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems

Study (Country) Type(s) of Mental Illness Number of Participants Type of Study
(Type of Setting)
Quality Assessment
Addington et al. 2005 (Canada) Schizophrenia Not applicable Clinical guidance (inpatient and outpatient settings) Not applicable
Bower et al. 2000 (USA) Not specified Not specified Systematic review (223 studies) (inpatient psychiatric settings) 7/14
Donat 2002 (USA) Severe mental illness 53 Case-control study (psychiatric hospital) 6/14
Donat 2003 (USA) Severe mental illness 53 Case-control study (psychiatric hospital) 7/14
Fisher 1994 (USA) Not specified Not applicable Descriptive review (inpatient settings) 6/14
Gaskin et al. 2007 (Australia) Not specified Not specified Systematic review (16 studies) (psychiatric facilities) 11/14
Janssen et al. 2007 (The Netherlands) Not specified Not specified Cross-sectional study (admission and long-stay psychiatric wards) 10/14
Khadivi et al. 2004 (USA) Not specified Not specified Cross-sectional study (psychiatric inpatient setting) 6/14
Kostecka & Zardecka 1999 (Poland) Not specified 866 Cross-sectional study (psychiatric hospital wards) 10/14
Lehman et al. 2004 (USA) Schizophrenia Not applicable Clinical guidance (inpatient and outpatient settings) Not applicable
McCue et al. 2004 (USA) Not specified 10,753 Cohort study (inpatient setting) 12/14
McGorry et al. 2005 (New Zealand and Australia) Schizophrenia and
related disorders
Not applicable Clinical guidance (inpatient and outpatient settings) Not applicable
Muralidharan & Fenton 2006 (USA) Not specified 0 Systematic review (0 studies) (inpatient setting) 12/14
NICE 2002 (UK) Schizophrenia Not applicable Clinical guidance (inpatient and outpatient settings) Not applicable
Nelstrop et al. 2006 (UK) Not specified Not applicable Systematic review (36 studies) (inpatient settings) 12/14
Palazzolo et al. 2001 (France) Not specified Not specified Descriptive review (psychiatric hospitals) 6/14
Wynn 2002 (Norway) Not specified 235 Cross-sectional study (psychiatric hospital) 9/14
Wynn 2004 (Norway) Majority schizophrenia 12 Qualitative study (hospital wards) 3/5