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Table 2 Major characteristics of the JEU Cohort (n = 628) at baseline

From: Study protocol: the JEU cohort study – transversal multiaxial evaluation and 5-year follow-up of a cohort of French gamblers

  N (responders) % M (SD)
SOCIODEMOGRAPHICS    
Gender (males) 628 66.6%  
Age (years) 627   43.4 (12.9)
Monthly income (€) 623   1739.1 (1957.4)
Professional activity (working) 627 63.5%  
Marital status (living alone) 627 49.9%
GAMBLING-RELATED CHARACTERISTICS    
Gambling status 628   
 Non-Problem Gamblers (NPG)   40.8%  
 Problem Gamblers without Treatment (PGWT)   26.9%
 Problem Gamblers Seeking Treatment (PGST)   32.3%
Preferred gambling activity 628   
 Electronic gaming machines (EGM) (Slots, videopoker)   26.1%  
 Horserace betting   21.3%
 Poker   12.4%
 Scratch cards   12.4%
 Lottery games with differed results (Loto® 1 , Euromillions® 2 , Kéno ® 1)   11.1%
 Sports betting   7.6%
 Roulette   3.8%
 Lottery games with instant results (Rapido® 3 , online Bingo)   2.5%
 Black Jack   0.5%
 Non classified (name given too sketchy)   2.1%
Frequency of gambling (once a week or more) 628 76.0%
Monthly gambling expenditure (€) 621   592.7 (1494.4)
Proportion of income spent on gambling 612 35.3%  
Maximum amount wagered in one day (€) 605   1275.2 (5349.0)
Age of initiation into gambling 628   20.4 (9.3)
Age of onset of a regular gambling practice 584   26.4 (11.4)
Age of onset of gambling problems (PGWT and PGST only) 350   34.7 (11.7)
Age of first consultation for gambling problems (PGST only) 196   40.1 (11.3)
Internet as the favorite medium of gambling 571 12.6%  
Experience of abstinence for one month or more 627 62.7%  
Family aware of the gambling problem 418 72.7%  
Familial history of gambling problems 605 25.5%  
PSYCHIATRIC AND SOMATIC COMORBIDITIES    
Mood disorders4 628 47.6%  
Anxiety disorders5 628 37.9%  
Addictive disorders6 628 35.2%  
Psychotic syndrome 627 8.0%  
Actual suicidal risk 628 23.7%  
Parkinson’s disease 627 1.1%  
ADHD antecedents    
 ADHD screening in childhood (WURS-C) 599 20.7%  
 ADHD screening in adulthood (ASRS) 599 18.7%  
PERSONALITY PROFILE    
TCI scores 594   
Temperament    
 Novelty Seeking    52.6 (18.0)
 Harm Avoidance    43.9 (23.4)
 Reward Dependence    60.2 (17.7)
 Persistence    55.1 (28.5)
Character    
 Self-Directedness    67.7 (20.0)
 Cooperation    73.9 (15.2)
 Self-Transcendence    31.4 (22.4)
Antisocial personality disorder 628 3.4%  
  1. Notes:1 Loto® and Kéno® are two national lotteries in France.
  2. 2 Euromillions is the European lottery.
  3. 3 Rapido® is a French game available in bars. The goal is to find 8 out of 20 numbers in a first grid (grid A) and simultaneously a number of four (grid B). The draw frequency of Rapido® is very high, with one draw every two and a half minutes.
  4. 4 Mood disorders included: depressive disorders (major depressive episodes or dysthymia) and manic or hypomanic episodes.
  5. 5 Anxiety disorders included: panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorder.
  6. 6 Addictive disorders included: substance use disorders, alcohol-use disorders and eating disorders.