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Table 1 Comparaison at D2 postpartum of the chracteristics of women between the two groups

From: Early identification of women at risk of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in a sample of Lebanese women

   EPDS <9 (%) EPDS ≥9 (%) p*
N   152 (66.8%) 76 (33.2%)  
Mean Age   31.8 31.2 0.336
Region of Residency Beirut 46 (30.3%) 24 (31.6%) 0.621
  South 5 (3.3%) 5 (6.6%)  
  Mount-Lebanon 92 (60.5%) 40 (52.6%)  
  North 3 (2.0%) 3 (3.9%)  
  Bekaa 5 (3.3%) 3 (3.9%)  
  Nabatiyeh 1 (0.6%) 1 (1.3%)  
Lebanese Yes 151 (99.3%) 73 (96.1%) 0.109
  No 1 (0.7%) 3 (3.9%)  
Education Elementary 1 (0.7%) 1 (1.3%) 0.444
  Intermediate 7 (4.6%) 6 (7.9%)  
  Secondary 16 (10.6%) 6 (7.9%)  
  University 98 (64.9%) 55 (72.4%)  
  Postuniversity 26 (17.2%) 7 (9.2%)  
  Other 3 (2.0%) 1 (1.3%)  
Occupation Unemployed 42 (27.8%) 18 (24.3%) 0.682
  Employee 72 (47.7%) 39 (52.7%)  
  Executive 12 (7.9%) 8 (10.8%)  
  Liberal profession 25 (16.6%) 9 (12.2%)  
Family Support Absent 10 (6.6%) 6 (7.9%) 0.785
  Present 142 (93.4%) 70 (92.1%)  
Personnal History of Depression Yes 10 (6.7%) 8 (10.7%) 0.147
  No 140 (93.3%) 67 (89.3%)  
Family History of Depression Yes 8 (5.3%) 9 (11.8%) 0.108
  No 142 (94.7%) 67 (88.2%)  
Perception of Pregnancy Easy 76 (50.7%) 23 (30.3%) <0.001
  Average 53 (35.3%) 25 (32.9%)  
  Difficult 21 (14.0%) 28 (36.8%)  
Perception of Delivery Easy 62 (41.3%) 21 (28.4%) 0.002
  Average 56 (37.3%) 20 (27%)  
  Difficult 32 (21.4%) 33 (44.6%)  
Newborn’s gender Male 65 (42.8%) 42 (55.3%) 0.091
  Female 87 (57.2%) 34 (44.7%)  
Pregnancy Term <36 WG 11 (7.2%) 8 (10.7%) 0.390
  36-40 WG 130 (85.6%) 59 (78.6%)  
  >40 WG 11 (7.2%) 8 (10.7%)  
Delivery route Vaginal 48 (31.6%) 12 (15.8%) 0.006
  Vaccum 32 (21.1%) 12 (15.8%)  
  Forceps 6 (3.9%) 1 (1.3%)  
  Vaccum + Forceps 0 (0%) 1 (1.3%)  
  C-section 66 (43.4%) 50 (65.8%)  
Birth order Primiparous 56 (36.8%) 25 (32.9%) 0.660
  Multiparous 96 (63.1%) 51 (67.1%)  
Twin Pregnancy Yes 3 (2.0%) 6 (7.9%) 0.063
  No 149 (98.0%) 70 (92.1%)  
Chronic medical problem for the mother Yes 60 (39.5%) 40 (52.6%) 0.066
  No 92 (60.5%) 36 (47.4%)  
Transfer of the mother to ICU Yes 0 (0%) 3 (3.9%) 0.036
  No 152 (100%) 73 (76.9%)  
Newborn at birth Dead 0 (0%) 1 (1.3%) 0.332
  Alive 152 (100%) 75 (98.7%)  
Foetal medical problem Yes 12 (7.9%) 12 (15.8%) 0.071
  No 140 (92.1%) 64 (84.2%)  
Newborn transfer to ICU Yes 13 (8.6%) 14 (18.7%) 0.025
  No 139 (91.4%) 61 (81.3%)  
Breastfeeding No (baby dead) 0 (0%) 1 (1.3%) 0.049
  Breastfeeding + 1–2 cups during hospital stay 33 (21.7%) 10 (13.3%)  
  No breastfeeding 4 (2.6%) 7 (9.4%)  
  Breastfeeding + >2 cups/day 24 (15.8%) 15 (20%)  
  Exclusive 91 (59.9%) 42 (56%)  
  1. WG: Weeks of Gestation; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; *Significance threshold p ≤ 0.05.