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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample, by city: São Paulo (n = 2159); Rio de Janeiro (n = 1072)

From: Resilience to trauma in the two largest cities of Brazil: a cross-sectional study

Variables São Paulo Rio de Janeiro
n (%) n (%)
Gender   
Female 1205 (55.8) 597 (55.7)
Male 954 (44.2) 475 (44.3)
Age group (years)   
15-24 399 (18.5) 171 (16.0)
25-34 619 (28.8) 220 (20.5)
35-44 439 (20.3) 221 (20.6)
45-54 333 (15.4) 206 (19.2)
55-64 234 (10.8) 140 (13.1)
65-75 135 (6.2) 114 (10.6)
Ethnic group   
White 970 (45.0) 457 (42.7)
Black 295 (13.7) 205 (19.2)
Mixed-race 811 (37.6) 365 (34.1)
Asian 50 (2.3) 23 (2.1)
Indigenous 19 (0.9) 15 (1.4)
Other 12 (0.5) 5 (0.5)
Education (years)   
Illiterate 70 (3.2) 14 (1.3)
1-4 397 (18.4) 124 (11.6)
5-8 597 (27.7) 246 (22.9)
9-12 832 (38.5) 453 (42.3)
13 or more 263 (12.2) 235 (21.9)
Marital status   
Single 585 (27.1) 314 (29.3)
Married 1253 (58.0) 577 (53.8)
Widowed 108 (5.0) 64(6.0)
Divorced 213 (9.9) 117 (10.9)
Family income (minimum wage) a   
Less than 2 780 (40.3) 280 (29.8)
2 - 3.9 593 (30.6) 319 (33.9)
4 or more 565 (29.1) 342 (36.3)
Working (yes) 1341 (62.1) 641 (59.8)
Religion   
Catholic 1299 (60.6) 573 (53.8)
Spiritism 94 (4.4) 94 (8.8)
Evangelical 531 (24.7) 270 (25.4)
Other 41 (1.9) 24 (2.3)
Spirituality without religion 151 (7.0) 80 (7.5)
Atheist 30 (1.4) 23 (2.2)
Migration (yes) 1142 (52.9) 330 (30.8)
Parental mental disorders 137 (6.4) 87 (8.1)
Childhood traumatic event   
None 1374 (63.6) 652 (60.8)
Trauma not physical or sexual 608 (26.2) 315 (29.4)
Physical abuse 132 (6.1) 76 (7.1)
Sexual abuse 45 (2.1) 29 (2.7)
  1. a US$268 at the time of study. Missing information in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are 23 and 22%, respectively.