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Table 1 Characteristics pregnant women participating in the study to validate the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale in northern Uganda, October 2012-December 2012

From: Reliability and validity of the center for epidemiologic studies-depression scale in screening for depression among HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant women attending antenatal services in northern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

Variable Estimate Overall (n = 123) HIV- (n = 87) HIV + (n = 36) HIV- vs. HIV + p value
Gestational age at interview, weeks Mean (s.e.) 18.3 (0.36) 18.3 (0.43) 18.5 (0.66) n.s.***
Participant speaks Acholi or Langi % 91.9% 91.9% 91.7% n.s.
Participants’ age, years Mean (s.e.) 24.3 (0.44) 23.3 (0.49) 26.5 (0.76) 0.001
Woman identifies as married or cohabiting % 87.0% 93.1% 71.2% 0.002
Primary or no education % 53.7% 49.4% 63.9% n.s.
Woman identifies as housewife % 50.4% 51.7% 47.2% n.s.
Monthly household income per capita (in Uganda Shillings)* Mean (s.e.) 87,005 (9,229) 93,105 (10,991) 72,433 (16,988) n.s.
MINI-defined current major depressive disorder % 35.8% 28.7% 52.9% 0.011
Unadjusted CES-D score Mean (s.e.) 17.1 (1.24) 14.6 (1.42) 23.2 (2.21) 0.001
Adjusted CES-D score** Mean (s.e.) n/a 15.3 (1.44) 21.5 (2.33) 0.032
  1. *At the time the study was done, 1 US Dollar was equivalent to 2,500 Ugandan Shillings.
  2. **Differences in CES-D scores between HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant women after adjusting for age and marital status.
  3. ***n.s. refers to non-significant.