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Table 2 Odds ratios for risk of depression for demographic and disease factors

From: Lifestyle factors, demographics and medications associated with depression risk in an international sample of people with multiple sclerosis

Variable Groups Positive depression screen^, N(%) p Unadjusted OR p
Education Postgraduate degree 70/ 520 (13.5)† <0.001 1.0 -
Bachelor degree 137 808/(17.0)† 1.31 (0.96–1.79) 0.087
Vocational training 84/ 355 (23.7)* 1.99 (1.40–2.83) <0.001
No school/primary/secondary 138/ 533 (25.9)* 2.25 (1.64–3.09) <0.001
Marital status Married/partnered/cohabitating 285/ 1642 (17.4)† 0.001 1.0 -
Single 73/ 304 (24.0)* 1.51 (1.12–2.02) 0.006
Separated/divorced/widow(er) 64/ 248 (25.8)* 1.66 (1.21–2.26) 0.002
Employment Work full time 119/ 729 (16.3)† <0.001 1.0 -
Work part time 66/ 473 (14.0)† 0.83 (0.60–1.15) 0.266
Stay at home parent/carer 26/ 172 (15.1)† 0.91 (0.58–1.45) 0.698
Unemployed 46/167 (27.5)* 1.95 (1.32–2.89) 0.001
Retired due to disability 150/ 508 (29.5)* 2.15 (1.63–2.82) <0.001
Retired due to age 6/ 70 (8.6) † 0.48 (0.20–1.14) 0.095
Other (includes student) 15/ 101 (14.9)† 0.89 (0.50–1.60) 0.706
Disability Mild 169/ 1215 (13.9)† <0.001 1.0 -
Moderate 199/ 767 (25.9)* 2.17 (1.73–2.73) <0.001
Severe 59/ 236 (25.0)* 2.06 (1.74–2.89) <0.001
Type of MS Relapsing-remitting 252/ 1359 (18.5)† 0.015 1.0 -
Benign 10/ 95 (10.5) 0.52 (0.27–1.01) 0.053
Primary progressive 35/ 160 (21.9) 1.23 (0.83–1.83) 0.309
Secondary progressive 56/ 256 (21.9) 1.23 (0.89–1.71) 0.214
Progressive relapsing 16/ 46 (34.8)* 2.34 (1.26–4.36) 0.007
Unsure/other 58/ 301 (19.3) 1.05 (0.76–1.44) 0.770
Number of comorbidities None 53/ 737 (7.2)† <0.001 1.0 -
One 86/ 583 (14.8)† 2.23 (1.56–3.21) <0.001
Two 110/ 452 (24.3)* 4.15 (2.92–5.91) <0.001
Three 103/ 259 (39.8)* 8.52 (5.86–12.39) <0.001
Four 40/ 110 (36.4)* 7.38 (4.57–11.90) <0.001
Five or more 36/ 80 (45.0)* 10.56 (6.27–17.79) <0.001
Clinically significant fatigue No 29/ 732 (4.0)† <0.001 1.0 -
Yes 379/ 1393 (27.2)* 9.06 (6.14–13.38) <0.001
  1. *denotes overrepresentation and † denotes underrepresentation ^ PHQ-2 score ≥3. Bold denotes statistically significant.