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Table 3 Crude and adjusted odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, for modifiable lifestyle risk factors and risk of depression

From: Lifestyle factors, demographics and medications associated with depression risk in an international sample of people with multiple sclerosis

   Positive depression screen^, n/N(%) p Crude OR (95% CI) A OR (95% CI)
Smoking Never 153/1072 (14.3) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Former 178/890 (20.0) 1.50 (1.19–1.90)** 1.54 (1.18–2.03)**
Current 96/257 (37.4) 3.58 (2.64–4.86)*** 2.29 (1.60–3.27)***
Alcohol Low 310/1354 (22.9) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Moderate 113/834 (13.5) 0.53 (0.42–0.67)*** 0.73 (0.55–0.96)*
High 4/17 (23.5) 1.04 (0.34–3.20) 1.35 (0.38–4.74)
Exercise Low 257/909 (28.3) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Moderate 104/701 (14.8) 0.44 (0.34–0.57)*** 0.58 (0.43–0.78)***
High 63/591 (10.7) 0.30 (0.23–0.41)*** 0.51 (0.36–0.72)***
Vitamin D None 117/389 (30.1) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1- 5000 IU 231/1324 (17.4) 0.49 (0.38–0.64)*** 0.57 (0.43–0.77)***
> 5000 IU 64/439 (14.6) 0.40 (0.28–0.56)*** 0.47 (0.32–0.70)***
Omega 3 No 218/791 (27.6) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Yes 205/1420 (14.4) 0.44 (0.36–0.55)*** 0.58 (0.45–0.75)***
Omega 3 type None 218/791 (27.6) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Fish oil^ 127/778 (16.3) 0.51 (0.40–0.66)*** 0.64 (0.48–0.85)**
Flaxseed oil 21/200 (10.5) 0.31 (0.19–0.50)*** 0.48 (0.28–0.82)**
Both fish oil and flaxseed oil 46/388 (11.9) 0.35 (0.25–0.50)*** 0.49 (0.33–0.72)***
Fish consumption Less than once per week 180/638 (28.2) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 times per week 173/884 (19.6) 0.62 (0.49–0.79)*** 0.71 (0.54–0.93)*
3 or more days per week 75/696 (10.8) 0.31 (0.23–0.41)*** 0.48 (0.34–0.67)***
Meditation Never 241/1058 (22.8) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Less than once per week 99/493 (20.1) 0.85 (0.66–1.11) 0.86 (0.64–1.17)
1–4 times per week 56/440 (12.7) 0.49 (0.36–0.68)*** 0.52 (0.36–0.75)***
5 or more times per week 29/227 (12.8)   0.50 (0.33–0.75)** 0.47 (0.29–0.75)**
Social support 6 or more 40/299 (13.4) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
2–5 215/1316 (16.3) 1.26 (0.88–1.82) 1.11 (0.74–1.66)
1 134/475 (28.2) 2.54 (1.73–3.75)*** 2.42 (1.55–3.77)***
None 34/111 (30.6) 2.86 (1.70–4.82)*** 2.43 (1.32–4.47)**
Body Mass Index Normal 176/1183 (14.9) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Underweight 16/92 (17.4) 1.21 (0.69–2.11) 0.97 (0.50–1.88)
Overweight 113/504 (22.4) 1.65 (1.27–2.15)*** 1.23 (0.91–1.67)
Obese 116/421 (27.6) 2.18 (1.67–2.84)*** 1.47 (1.08–2.01)*
Dietary habits Upper (fourth) quartile 44/541 (8.1) <0.001 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Third quartile 75/488 (15.4) 2.05 (1.38–3.04)*** 1.65 (1.07–2.54)*
Second quartile 116/502 (23.1) 3.39 (2.34–4.92)*** 2.25 (1.48–3.41)***
Lower (first) quartile 150/499 (30.1) 4.86 (3.38–6.98)*** 2.73 (1.81–4.11)***
Medication No DMD 187/1094 (17.1) .004 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Interferon 104/424 (24.5) 1.58 (1.120–2.07)** 1.47 (1.07–2.02)*
DMD not IFN 138/706 (19.5) 1.18 (0.92–1.05) 1.20 (0.90–1.60)
  1. AOR: Adjusted odds ratios of screening positive for depression adjusted for years since diagnosis, number of comorbidities, level of disability, clinically significant fatigue, age, gender, marital status and level of education.
  2. * < 0.05, ** < 0.01, *** < 0.001.
  3. ^ PHQ-2 score ≥3. Bold denotes statistically significant.