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Table 3 Factor loadings from the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the confirmatory model respecified (CFA2)

From: The images of psychiatry scale: development, factor structure, and reliability

Factor EFA 1 CFA 2 CFA2 3
(N = 343) (N = 415) (N = 419)
Factor 1: Image of Psychiatry    
1. Psychiatry is unscientific. (R) .41 .72 .52
2. Psychiatry is not a genuine and valid branch of medicine. (R) .51 .56 .60
3. Psychiatric treatments are not evidence-based. (R) .47 .75 .64
4. There is very little psychiatrists can do for their patients. (R) .57 .63 .53
5. Psychiatric hospitals are little more than prisons. .48 .45 .52
6. Most psychiatrists are not clear, logical thinkers. .60 .45 .58
7. Psychiatrists are not good role models for medical students. .71 .73 .70
8. Psychiatrists are difficult to talk to. .69 .48 .50
9. Psychiatrists are not attentive enough to physiology. .71 .28 --
10. Psychiatry is filled with people whose medical skills are of low quality. (R) .71 .60 .57
11. Psychiatry has low prestige among other medical disciplines. (R) .51 .37 --
12. Students who could not obtain a residency position in other specialties eventually end up in psychiatry. (R) .48 .09 --
13. Students are generally attracted to psychiatry because of their own personal problems. (R) .47 .34 --
14. My colleagues generally speak well of psychiatry. .41 .39 --
15. Entering psychiatry is a waste of medical education. (R) .67 .76 .58
16. Psychiatry is so vague and imprecise it cannot really be taught effectively. (R) .56 .63 .58
Eigenvalue 7.3   
Alpha .83 .83 .82
Factor 2: Efficacy of Psychiatry    
1. Psychiatry is a rapidly expanding frontier of medicine. .66 .49 .66
2. Psychiatric treatments are as effective as treatments in other branches of medicine. .48 .47 .57
3. Most people who receive psychiatric treatment find it helpful. .58 .57 .61
4. I would encourage a bright student to enter psychiatry. .42 .36 --
5. Working with psychiatric patients is rewarding. .52 .51 .54
6. Psychiatric patients are highly appreciative of the care they receive. .51 .66 .42
7. Psychiatric teaching at this medical school is of the highest quality. .48 .19 --
8. Students at this medical school think that their psychiatric training has been valuable. .60 .34 --
Eigenvalue 2.3   
Alpha .68   .61
  1. 1Rotated loadings (> .4) using varimax rotation. (R) = Reverse coding. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy = .73.
  2. 2Chi square model vs saturated 1215, df = 448, p < .001; Root mean square error of approximation = .10; Comparative fit index = .54 Standardized root mean squared residual = .40; Coefficient of determination = .96.
  3. 3Chi square model vs saturated 216, df = 95, p < .001; Root mean square error of approximation = .055; Comparative fit index = .80 Standardized root mean squared residual = .13; Coefficient of determination = .95.