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Table 2 Multinomial logistic regression models of the association between the extent of chronic multisite pain and mood disorder

From: Chronic multisite pain in major depression and bipolar disorder: cross-sectional study of 149,611 participants in UK Biobank

   RRR (95% CI)*
Model   Probable MDD Probable BD
1. No adjustments (n = 149,612) No chronic pain 1 1
1 site 1.35 (1.31, 1.39) 1.41 (1.24, 1.60)
2-3 sites 1.88 (1.81, 1.94) 2.35 (2.07, 2.38)
4-7 sites 3.12 (2.91, 3.34) 4.43 (3.55, 5.52)
Widespread pain 2.80 (2.53, 3.11) 5.38 (4.04, 7.16)
2. Adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, deprivation and employment status (n = 147,463) No chronic pain 1 1
1 site 1.32 (1.28, 1.37) 1.34 (1.18, 1.52)
2-3 sites 1.74 (1.68, 1.80) 2.03 (1.78, 2.31)
4-7 sites 2.54 (2.36, 2.73) 2.89 (2.29, 3.64)
Widespread pain 2.23 (1.997, 2.49) 2.81 (2.07, 3.81)
3. Adjustments as for 2. plus BMI, smoking status and frequency of alcohol consumption (n = 145,945) No chronic pain 1 1
1 site 1.30 (1.26, 1.34) 1.29 (1.13, 1.47)
2-3 sites 1.66 (1.61, 1.72) 1.92 (1.68, 2.19)
4-7 sites 2.38 (2.21, 2.57) 2.62 (2.07, 3.33)
Widespread pain 2.07 (1.85, 2.31) 2.61 (1.91, 3.55)
4. Adjustments as for 3. plus additional long term condition morbidity count (n = 145,518) No chronic pain 1 1
1 site 1.27 (1.23, 1.31) 1.27 (1.12, 1.45)
2-3 sites 1.59 (1.54, 1.65) 1.84 (1.61, 2.10)
4-7 sites 2.14 (1.99, 2.31) 2.39 (1.88, 3.04)
Widespread pain 1.86 (1.66, 2.08) 2.37 (1.74, 3.24)
  1. *Relative to non-mood disordered comparison group. Associations for individual variable level and the overall models were significant at p < 0.001.
  2. RRR – relative risk ratio; 95% CI – 95% confidence interval; BMI – body mass index; MDD – major depressive disorder; BD – bipolar disorder.