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Table 2 Two-way repeated measures analyses of variance to examine Quotient® movement variables for diagnostic groups

From: Differentiating ADHD from oral language difficulties in children: role of movements and effects of stimulant medication

  OLD (n =12) OLD/ADHD (n = 19)     
  M (SD) M (SD)     
  T1 T2 T1 T2 Statistic Value p η 2
Immobility duration 213.58(116.84) 222.25 (159.82) 115.11 (122.70) 118.32 (110.82) Group F(1,29) 5.49 .26  
Movements 2032.67(1020.75) 2458.25 (2086.34) 4837.84 (2746.45) 4457.68 (2646.04) Group F(1,29) 8.54 .01* .23
Displacement 2.73 (1.58) 3.82 (4.22) 8.70 (6.15) 8.11 (6.61) Group F(1,29) 7.76 .01* .21
Area 66.17 (50.41) 107.67 (153.53) 265.37 (154.55) 266.11 (229.09) Group F(1,29) 10.64 .003* .27
Spatial complexity 1.20 (.10) 1.20 (.13) 1.12 (.14) 1.11 (.14) Group F(1,29) 0.10 .09  
Temporal scaling .60 (.24) .59 (.37) .98 (.42) .98 (.42) Group F(1,29) 8.30 .01* .22
  1. *Significant p-value alpha level of .01. η2 effect sizes of .01, 06, and .14 represent small, medium, and large effects sizes respectively.
  2. Immobility Duration: Average amount of time, in seconds, spent sitting still (moving less than 1 mm) during a 5 min. period.
  3. Movements: Average number of position changes (movement greater than 1 mm), measured in total meters during a 5 min. period.
  4. Displacement: Total distance traveled (in meters) by the marker during a 5 min. period.
  5. Area: Size and shape, measured in cm2, of the space covered by the marker during a 5 min. period.
  6. Spatial Complexity: Complexity of the movement path. (Values range from one to two). Lower values indicate more linear, back & forth movement; higher values indicate more complex movement.
  7. Temporal Scaling: Frequency of movement (scale from 0 to 1; 0 = no movement and 1 = constant movement).