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Table 3 Two-way repeated measures analyses of variance to examine Quotient® movement variables for medication condition

From: Differentiating ADHD from oral language difficulties in children: role of movements and effects of stimulant medication

  Off medication (n = 16) On medication (n =16)     
  M (SD) M (SD)     
  T1 T2 T1 T2 Statistic Value p η 2
Immobility duration 123.38 (129.02) 106.81 (106.56) 195.56 (130.51) 244.50 (189.01) Group F(1,15) 20.54 .000* .58
Movements 4841.56 (3007.52) 4916.62 (2768.34) 2342.44 (1409.24) 2343.56 (1930.90) Group F(1,15) 26.10 .000* .64
Displacement 8.83 (6.76) 9.23 (7.06) 3.44 (2.64) 3.54 (3.57) Group F(1,15) 22.45 .000* .60
Area 250.25 (172.73) 300.13 (255.54) 87.25 (84.52) 91.06 (113.39) Group F(1,15) 31.08 .000* .67
Spatial complexity 1.14 (.15) 1.10 (.12) 1.19 (.14) 1.25 (.19) Group F(1,15) 17.54 .001* .54
Temporal scaling .99 (.44) 1.07 (.42) .67 (.30) .65 (.39) Group F(1,15) 24.49 .000* .62
  1. *Significant p-value alpha level of .01. η2 effect sizes of .01, 06, and .14 represent small, medium, and large effects sizes respectively.
  2. Immobility Duration: Average amount of time, in seconds, spent sitting still (moving less than 1 mm) during a 5 min. period.
  3. Movements: Average number of position changes (movement greater than 1 mm), measured in total meters during a 5 min. period.
  4. Displacement: Total distance traveled (in meters) by the marker during a 5 min. period.
  5. Area: Size and shape, measured in cm2, of the space covered by the marker during a 5 min. period.
  6. Spatial Complexity: Complexity of the movement path (values range from one to two). Lower values indicate more linear, back & forth movement; higher values indicate more complex movement.
  7. Temporal Scaling: Frequency of movement (scale from 0 to 1; 0 = no movement and 1 = constant movement).