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Table 1 Subgroup analyses of relative risk of coronary heart disease

From: Depression and the risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

  No of reports Relative risk (95% CI) I 2 P for heterogeneity
Coronary heart disease      
Primary analysis 27* 1.31 1.19 to 1.45 70.50% <0.001
Subgroup analyses for coronary heart disease
Sex      
Men 13 1.38 1.17 to 1.61 74.60% <0.001
Women 8 1.17 1.01 to 1.36 55.50% 0.028
Combined 13 1.36 1.17 to 1.57 56.50% 0.006
Mean age at baseline, y      
≥65 13 1.35 1.14 to 1.59 81.20% <0.001
<65 21 1.3 1.17 to 1.44 61.40% <0.001
Publication year      
Before 2005 15 1.47 1.23 to 1.75 62.30% 0.001
2005-2014 19 1.24 1.13 to 1.37 74.30% <0.001
Duration of follow-up      
≥15 years 4 1.09 0.96 to 1.23 0.00% 0.714
<15 years 30 1.36 1.24 to 1.49 74.80% <0.001
Study location      
Unite States, Canada 21 1.39 1.24 to 1.56 53.20% 0.002
Europe 11 1.18 1.06 to 1.32 69.70% <0.001
Asia 2 1.14 0.77 to 1.70 81.20% 0.021
Type of depression measurement      
Self-reported scales 29 1.33 1.22 to 1.46 74.30% <0.001
Clinical diagnosis 4 1.2 0.82 to 1.74 60.00% 0.058
Combined 1 1.12 0.89 to 1.41 NA NA
  1. Abbreviations: NA, not applicable.
  2. *Five articles provided RRs for women and men separately, we pooled both risk estimates to obtain one overall estimates for the primary analysis; therefore, there are 27 reports in the primary analysis.