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Table 4 Adjusted effect of study variables on depressive symptoms

From: The impact of age differences in couples on depressive symptoms: evidence from the Korean longitudinal study of aging (2006–2012)

  Husbands Wives
  Estimate SE P -value Estimate SE P -value
Husbands-Wives (Wives-Husbands)      
≤ −3 (≥ +3) 0.309 0.084 0.000 0.645 0.109 <.0001
−2 ~ −1 (+1 ~ +2) 0.004 0.063 0.955 0.194 0.082 0.018
0 ref    ref   
+1 ~ +2 (−2 ~ −1) −0.045 0.045 0.321 0.015 0.059 0.796
+3 ~ +4 (−4 ~ −3) 0.024 0.044 0.586 −0.024 0.057 0.668
+5 ~ +6 (−6 ~ −5) −0.054 0.047 0.251 0.075 0.060 0.212
≥ +7 (≤ −7) 0.000 0.048 0.996 0.074 0.061 0.222
Age       
≤55 ref    ref   
56-65 −0.038 0.028 0.184 −0.026 0.035 0.464
66-75 −0.087 0.035 0.014 0.220 0.048 <.0001
≥75 0.108 0.054 0.045 0.524 0.087 <.0001
Education       
≤ Middle school 0.079 0.030 0.009 0.063 0.062 0.316
High school 0.032 0.032 0.318 −0.077 0.065 0.240
≥ College ref    ref   
Income       
Yes 0.026 0.025 0.296 0.002 0.045 0.967
No ref    ref   
Frequency of social activities       
Everyday ref    ref   
Sometimes 0.063 0.023 0.005 0.062 0.053 0.247
Never 0.160 0.039 <.0001 −0.062 0.056 0.268
Smoking status       
Never 0.002 0.026 0.947 −0.312 0.113 0.006
Former smoker 0.080 0.028 0.005 0.305 0.221 0.168
Smoker ref    ref   
Alcohol use       
No ref    ref   
Former user 0.167 0.038 <.0001 0.437 0.086 <.0001
Yes −0.002 0.029 0.952 −0.008 0.037 0.824
Economically active       
Yes −0.071 0.026 0.006 −0.059 0.035 0.093
No ref    ref   
Self-rated health       
Good −0.266 0.031 <.0001 −0.536 0.040 <.0001
Normal −0.205 0.030 <.0001 −0.421 0.037 <.0001
Bad ref    ref   
Depression in partner       
Yes 0.469 0.024 <.0001 0.811 0.036 <.0001
No ref    ref   
Marital satisfaction       
Low 0.144 0.059 0.015 0.325 0.063 <.0001
Medium 0.069 0.020 0.001 0.189 0.029 <.0001
High ref    ref   
Year       
2006 ref    ref   
2008 1.386 0.038 <.0001 1.688 0.048 <.0001
2010 2.586 0.049 <.0001 2.510 0.055 <.0001
2012 4.105 0.057 <.0001 3.338 0.061 <.0001