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Table 2 Score of the PSQI components and PSQI total score between drug users and nondrug users

From: Sleeping problems in Chinese illicit drug dependent subjects

  Drug users Non drug users P
(n = 2178) (n = 2236)
Subjective sleep quality, M ± SD 1.41 ± 0.897 0.75 ± 0.637 <0.001
Sleep latency, M ± SD 1.43 ± 1.128 0.73 ± 0.724 <0.001
≤15 min, n,% 568, 26.1% 914, 40.9% -
16-30 min, n,% 660, 30.3% 1048, 46.9% -
31-60 min, n,% 400, 18.4% 227, 10.2% -
>60 min, n,% 550, 25.3% 47, 2.1% -
Sleep duration, M ± SD 0.84 ± 0.999 0.74 ± 0.817 <0.001
>7 h, n,% 1095, 50.3% 1081, 48.3% -
5–7 h, n,% 891, 40.9% 1118, 50% -
<5 h, n,% 192, 8.8% 37, 1.7% -
Habitual sleep efficiency*, M ± SD 0.67 ± 1.048 0.30 ± 0.689 <0.001
≥85%, n,% 1420, 65.2% 1779, 79.6% -
75–84%, n,% 329, 15.1% 305, 13.6% -
65–74%, n,% 167, 7.7% 81, 3.6% -
<65%, n,% 262, 12.0% 71, 3.2% -
Sleep disturbance, M ± SD 1.12 ± 0.735 0.70 ± 0.536 <0.001
Need for sleep medications, M ± SD 0.88 ± 1.241 0.06 ± 0.281 <0.001
Not during the past month, n,% 1359, 62.4% 2129, 95.2% -
Less than once a week, n,% 173, 7.9% 88, 3.9% -
Once or twice a week, n,% 185, 8.5% 15, 0.7% -
≥3 times a week, n,% 461, 21.2% 4, 0.2% -
Daytime dysfunction, M ± SD 1.63 ± 1.109 0.91 ± 0.848 <0.001
PSQI total score, M ± SD 7.97 ± 4.392 4.20 ± 2.468 <0.001
Good sleepers (PSQI ≤ 5), n,% 686, 31.5% 1645, 73.6% -
Poor sleepers (PSQI > 5), n,% 1492, 68.5% 591, 26.4% -
  1. M: mean; SD: standard deviation; n: number; %: the percentage of subjects.
  2. Mean differences were analyzed between drug users and non drug users by t-tests; Score ranges from 0 to 3, with higher scores indicating poorer functioning. Habitual sleep efficiency* = total hours of sleep/(get-up time − bedtime) × 100%.