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Table 4 Logistic regression analyses for socio-demographic, mental disorder and substance use related outcomes of foster care experiences (n = 442)

From: History of foster care among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia: a precursor to trajectories of risk

Outcome Variable 8 Unadjusted OR ( 95 % CI ) P value Adjusted 9 OR ( 95 % CI ) P value
Incomplete high school 2.51 (1.62, 3.89) <0.001*** 2.08 (1.29, 3.35) 0.003**
Homelessness     
Lifetime duration (>3 years)10 1.69 (1.12, 2.55) 0.012* 1.60 (1.02, 2.50) 0.041*
Longest single episode (>1 year)11 2.00 (1.32, 3.03) 0.001*** 1.95 (1.25, 3.05) 0.003**
Age first homeless (<25 years) 2.69 (1.77, 4.10) <0.001*** 2.36 (1.42, 3.91) 0.001***
Vocational functioning     
Worked continuously (≥1 year) in the past 0.45 (0.29, 0.68) <0.001*** 0.62 (0.39, 0.98) 0.041*
Unemployed 1.50 (0.65, 3.36) 0.349 -  
Mental disorders     
Major depressive episode 1.44 (0.96, 2.17) 0.078+   
Panic disorder 1.56 (0.97, 2.51) 0.067+   
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 2.22 (1.43, 3.47) <0.001*** 1.60 (0.98, 2.62) 0.061+
Less severe cluster 2.04 (1.34, 3.10) 0.001*** 1.62 (1.03, 2.57) 0.039*
(Hypo) manic episode 1.25 (0.76, 2.06) 0.374   
Mood disorder with psychotic features 1.21 (0.72, 2.04) 0.478   
Psychotic disorder 0.69 (0.46, 1.04) 0.078+   
Severe cluster 0.97 (0.61, 1.52) 0.879 -  
Alcohol dependence 1.01 (0.63, 1.63) 0.954 -  
Substance dependence 1.73 (1.13, 2.65) 0.011* 1.18 (0.74, 1.88) 0.501
High suicide risk 1.72 (1.04, 2.84) 0.035* 1.59 (0.92, 2.72) 0.095+
Multiple mental disorders (≥2) 2.08 (1.38, 3.14) 0.001*** 1.69 (1.08, 2.66) 0.023*
Physical health     
Blood-borne infectious diseases 1.08 (0.70, 1.66) 0.730   
Multiple physical illness (≥3) 1.21 (0.77, 1.89) 0.415   
Overall health (poor) 0.98 (0.54, 1.77) 0.944   
Substance use     
Early initiation of alcohol (<14 years)12 2.60 (1.70, 3.99) <0.001*** 2.54 (1.60, 4.05) <0.001***
Early initiation of drugs (<14 years)13 2.50 (1.63, 3.83) <0.001*** 2.49 (1.56, 3.96) <0.001***
IV drug use 2.07 (1.27, 3.40) 0.004** 1.50 (0.87, 2.59) 0.141
Daily substance use 1.85 (1.20, 2.85) 0.006** 1.53 (0.96, 2.44) 0.077+
Daily drug use (no alcohol) 1.95 (1.25, 3.05) 0.003** 1.64 (1.01, 2.65) 0.045*
Daily illicit drug use14 1.70 (1.00, 2.89) 0.050* 1.23 (0.69, 2.19) 0.490
Daily alcohol use 1.51 (0.64, 3.58) 0.351   
Daily marijuana use 1.71 (0.98, 2.98) 0.058+   
Poly-substance (≥2) use 1.69 (1.12, 2.57) 0.013* 1.22 (0.77, 1.94) 0.393
Poly-drug (≥2) use (no alcohol) 1.75 (1.16, 2.65) 0.008** 1.32 (0.84, 2.09) 0.232
Justice System Involvement     
Incarceration (past 6 months) 1.65 (0.93, 2.93) 0.087+   
Been arrested (past 6 months) 1.41 (0.92, 2.15) 0.114   
Court appearance (past 6 months) 1.50 (0.98, 2.28) 0.061+   
  1. *p ≤ 0.05.
  2. **p ≤ 0.01.
  3. ***p ≤ 0.001.
  4. +p > 0.05 & p ≤ 0.10.
  5. 8Separate binary logistic regression analyses (univariate and multivariable) were conducted for each outcome using Foster Care (No vs. Yes) as an independent variable.
  6. 9Controlled for age (continuous), gender (Male, Female), ethnicity (Aboriginal, White, Other), need level (High, Moderate), and marital status (Single, Other).
  7. 10Dichotomized based on median value (3 years).
  8. 11Dichotomized based on median value (1 year).
  9. 12Dichotomized based on median value (14 years).
  10. 13Dichotomized based on median value (14 years).
  11. 14Does not include alcohol and marijuana.