Skip to main content

Table 3 Socio-demographic, migration and health related characteristics of parents in migrant and non-migrant households

From: Risk of mental health and nutritional problems for left-behind children of international labor migrants

  Migrant spouse (%) Comparative spouse (%) Group difference (chi 2 , df, p-value)
Gender 18.64 (2), p = 0.001
Male 111 (28.8) 51 (13.2)  
Female 274 (71.2) 334 (86.8)  
Age 29.14 (1), p = 0.001
Spouse age (mean) 37.9 (0.49) 37.0 (0.39)  
18-30 54 (14.1) 77 (18.3)  
31-60 293 (76.3) 305 (72.4)  
above 61 37 (9.6) 39 (9.3)  
Ethnicity 0.86 (3), p = 0.461
Sinhala 286 (74.5) 301 (78.2)  
Tamil 27 (7.0) 23 (6.0)  
Muslim 61 (15.9) 56 (14.5)  
Other 10 (2.6) 5 (1.3)  
Education 22.55 (2), p = 0.001
No education 27 (7.0) 4 (1.0)  
Primary 95 (24.7) 46 (11.9)  
Secondary 263 (68.3) 335 (87.0)  
Civil status 9.00 (2), p = 0.001
Married 345 (89.6) 374 (97.1)  
Unmarried 7 (1.8) 2 (0.5)  
Divorced 33 (8.6) 9 (2.3)  
Employment 0.97 (1), p = 0.323
Non-employed 247 (64.2) 260 (67.5)  
Employed 138 (35.8) 125 (32.5)  
Family indebtedness 1.08 (2), p = 0.339
No (little or no debt) 214 (55.6) 229 (59.6)  
Yes (significant levels of debt) 171 (44.4) 155 (40.4)  
Area of residence 0.15 (1), p = 0.696
Rural 264 (68.6) 269 (69.9)  
Urban 121 (31.4) 116 (30.1)  
Employment type of labor migrant*
Labourer/domestic maid 249(65.5) Not applicable  
Services 78(20.5) Not applicable  
Technical 17(4.5) Not applicable  
Professional/other 36(9.5) Not applicable  
Return frequency of labor migrant
Every year 61(15.8) Not applicable  
Every 2–5 years 110(28.6) Not applicable  
Never returned/missing 214(55.6) Not applicable  
In-bound remittance    
Every month 144(42.9) Not applicable  
Every 2–6 months/more 192(57.1) Not applicable  
Health-related factors
General health    9.97 (2), p = 0.001
Excellent 17 (4.4) 19 (5.0)  
Fair 319 (82.9) 349 (91.1)  
Poor 49 (12.7) 15 (3.9)  
Current illness    27.94 (1), p = 0.001
Current diagnosed illness 133 (34.7) 70 (18.2)  
No current illness 250 (65.3) 315(81.8)  
Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD)  
Any CMD 74 (19.2) 35 (9.1) 16.56 (1), p = 0.001
Depression 65 (16.9) 30 (7.8)  
Somatoform disorder 22 (5.7) 12 (3.1)  
Anxiety 8 (2.1) 2 (0.5)  
  1. *The categories of migrant worker employment were classified according to the Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment.