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Table 2 CRTs versus Other services: Study outcomes and relationship to CRT characteristics

From: Implementation of the Crisis Resolution Team model in adult mental health settings: a systematic review

Outcome Results Studies(MMAT score) 24 hour service Gatekeeping role reported and implemented Staffing (>14 staff per 150,000 population) Medical cover within the CRT team Multidisciplinary Early discharge service
Inpatient admissions(admission at time of crisis) Superior outcomes for CRT (n = 10) Adesanya 2005 (4) [36] 7 papers = Yes (24 hour service was present) 8 = Yes (had gatekeeping role) 4 = No (staffing not adequate) 8 = Yes (had medical cover) 8 = Yes (multidisciplinary) 5 = Yes (had early discharge service)
Barker 2011 (2) [12]
Dibben 2008 (3) [39] 2 = No (no gatekeeping role) 6 = Not reported 1 = No (no medical cover) 1 = No (not multidisciplinary)
Guo 2001 (4) [41] 2 papers = No (24 hour service was not present)
Hugo 2002 (4) [42] 1 = No (no early discharge service)
Jethwa 2007 (3) [43] 1 = Not reported
Johnson 2005a (3) [8] 1 = Characteristic not reported
Johnson 2005b (3) [9] 1 = Not reported
Keown 2007 (4) [45] 4 = Not reported
Piggott 1993(4) [47]
No significant difference between groups (n = 3) Forbes 2010 (3) [40] 1 = Yes (24 hour service) 2 = Yes (had gatekeeping role) 2 = Yes (staffing adequate) 2 = Yes (had medical cover) 1 = Yes (multidisciplinary) 1 = Yes (had early discharge service)
Kolbjornsrud 2009 (4) [46]
2 = No (no 24-hour service) 1 = No (no gatekeeping role) 1 = Not reported 1 = Not reported 1 = No (not multidisciplinary)
Tyrer 2010 (2) [13]
1 = No (no early discharge service)
1 = Not reported
1 = Not reported
Inpatient bed days Superior outcomes for CRT (n = 6) Barker 2011 (2) [12] 5 = Yes (24 hour service) 5 = Yes (had gatekeeping role) 1 = Yes (staffing adequate) 5 = Yes (had medical cover) 4 = Yes (multidisciplinary) 4 = Yes (had early discharge service)
Dean 1993 (3) [38]
Johnson 2005a* (3) [8] 1 = Not reported 1 = Not reported 2 = No (staffing not adequate) 1 = Not reported 2 = Not reported
Johnson 2005b (3) [9] 2 = Not reported
Johnson 2008 (0) [44] 3 = Not reported
Piggott 1993 (4) [47]
No significant difference between groups (n = 6) Adesanya 2008 (4) [36] 4 = Yes (24 hour service) 5 = Yes (had gatekeeping role) 1 = Yes (staffing adequate) 3 = Yes (had medical cover) 4 = Yes (multidisciplinary) 2 = Yes (had early discharge service)
Bechdolf 2011 (4) [37]
Dibben 2008 (3) [39] 2 = No (no 24-hour service) 1 = Not reported 1 = No (staffing not adequate) 3 = Not reported 2 = Not reported
Forbes 2010 (3) [40]
4 = Not reported 1 = No (no early discharge service)
Keown 2007 (4) [45]
Tyrer 2010 (2) [13]
3 = not reported
Service user satisfaction Superior outcomes for CRT (n = 3) Johnson 2005a (3) [8] 3 = Yes (24 hour service) 2 = Yes (had gatekeeping role) 1 = Yes (staffing adequate) 2 = Yes (had medical cover) 2 = Yes (multidisciplinary) 2 = Yes (had early discharge service)
Johnson 2005b(3) [9]
Johnson 2008 (0) [44] 1 = Not reported 2 = Not reported 1 = Not reported 1 = Not reported 1 = Not reported
No significant difference (n = 2) Dibben 2008 (3) [39] 1 = Yes (24 hour service) 2 = Yes (had gatekeeping role) 2 = Not reported 1 = No (no medical cover) 1 = Yes (multidisciplinary) 1 = No (no early discharge service)
Tyrer 2010 (2) 1 = No (no 24-hour service) 1 = Not reported 1 = Not reported 1 = Not reported
  1. *Johnson [8] was included as one of the studies reporting superior outcomes for CRTs for bed use: it found reduced bed use in CRT group at 6 weeks follow up, though not at 6 month follow-up.