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Table 2 Recorded psychotropic medication use before/during early pregnancy in women with severe mental illness

From: The characteristics and health needs of pregnant women with schizophrenia compared with bipolar disorder and affective psychoses

Medication 90 days pre pregnancy, N (%) 1 st trimester, N (%)
  Whole sample Non-affective Affective Whole sample Non-affective Affective
  N = 450 N = 234 N = 216 N = 445 N = 232 N = 213
No regular medication 126 (28.0) 61 (26.1) 65 (30.1) 133 (29.9) 65 (28.0) 68 (31.9)
Antipsychotics 255 (56.7) 160 (68.4) 95 (44.0) 247 (55.5) 158 (68.1) 89 (41.8)
Olanzapine 98 (21.8) 52 (22.2) 46 (21.3) 97 (21.8) 53 (22.8) 44 (20.7)
Risperidone 56 (12.4) 37 (15.8) 19 (8.8) 52 (11.7) 36 (15.2) 16 (7.5)
Aripiprazole 45 (10.0) 40 (17.1) 5 (2.3) 39 (8.8) 34 (14.7) 5 (2.4)
Quetiapine 35 (7.8) 14 (6.0) 21 (9.7) 29 (6.5) 11 (4.7) 18 (8.5)
Haloperidol 16 (3.6) 8 (3.4) 8 (3.7) 23 (5.2) 17 (7.3) 6 (2.8)
Trifluoperazine 8 (1.8) 6 (2.6) <5 9 (2.0) 7 (3.0) <5
Chlorpromazine <5 <5 <5 7 (1.6) <5 <5
Flupenthixol 8 (1.8) 8 (3.4) 0 8 (1.8) 8 (3.5) 0
Other1 24 (5.3) 18 (7.7) 6 (2.8) 23 (5.2) 18 (7.8) 5 (2.4)
Mood stabilisers 82 (18.2) 21 (9.0) 61 (28.2) 74 (16.6) 18 (7.8) 56 (26.3)
Sodium Valproate 41 (9.1) 15 (6.4) 26 (12.0) 34 (7.6) 13 (5.6) 21 (9.9)
Lithium 24 (5.3) <5 22 (10.2) 21 (4.7) <5 20 (9.4)
Lamotrigine 11 (2.4) <5 8 (3.7) 12 (2.7) <5 9 (4.2)
Carbamazepine/Topimarate 9 (2.0) <5 6 (2.8) 9 (2.0) <5 6 (2.8)
Antidepressants 107 (23.8) 39 (16.7) 68 (31.5) 103 (23.2) 37 (16.0) 66 (31.0)
Citalopram/ Escitalopram 25 (5.6) 11 (4.7) 14 (6.5) 28 (6.3) 11 (4.7) 17 (8.0)
Fluoxetine 28 (6.2) 7 (3.0) 21 (9.7) 25 (5.6) 8 (3.5) 17 (8.0)
Sertraline 15 (3.3) 8 (3.4) 7 (3.2) 17 (3.8) 9 (3.9) 8 (3.8)
Venlafaxine 18 (4.0) 5 (2.1) 13 (6.0) 16 (3.6) 5 (2.2) 11 (5.2)
Mirtazepine 15 (3.3) <5 11 (5.1) 11 (2.5) <5 7 (3.3)
Other2 16 (3.6) 7 (3.0) 9 (4.2) 17 (3.8) 5 (2.2) 12 (5.6)
Polypharmacy*       
2 agents 104 (23.1) 49 (20.9) 55 (25.5) 97 (21.8) 49 (21.1) 48 (22.5)
>2 agents 31 (6.9) 13 (5.6) 18 (8.3) 33 (7.4) 13 (5.6) 17 (8.0)
Anxiolytics 3 40 (7.5)    34 (6.5)   
Lorazepam 13 (2.9) 9 (3.9) 4 (1.9) 9 (2.0) 5 (2.2) <5
Diazepam 10 (2.2) <5 8 (3.7) 8 (1.8) <5 5 (2.4)
Other3 14 (3.1) 7 (3.0) 7 (3.2) 12 (2.7) <5 8 (3.8)
Sedatives 35 (7.8) 15 (6.4) 20 (9.3) 37 (8.3) 16 (6.9) 21 (9.9)
Promethazine 15 (3.3) 8 (3.4) 7 (3.2) 21 (4.7) 10 (4.3) 11 (5.2)
Zopiclone/zolpidem 23 (5.1) 9 (3.9) 14 (6.5) 24 (5.4) 9 (3.9) 15 (7.0)
Side effects medication       
Procyclidine 18 (4.0) 10 (4.3) 8 (3.7) 14 (3.2) 9 (3.9) 5 (2.4)
  1. 1antipsychotic “other” includes: , clozapine (n = 5), amisulpride, clopixol, piportil, prochlorperazine, sulpride.
  2. 2antidepressant “other” includes: amitriptiline, dosulepin, dothiepin, duloxetine, imipramine, maprotiline, paroxetine, repoxetine, trancyclopromine, trazodone, trimipramine, tryptophan, lofepramine, selegiline.
  3. 3anxiolytics “other” includes: clonazepam, midazolam, chlordiazepoxide.
  4. *refers to any combination of antidepressants, mood stabilisers and antipsychotic.