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Table 1 Basic data of healthy controls and schizophrenia patients

From: Asymmetric dimethylarginine in somatically healthy schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics: a case–control study

  Control (N = 40) Schizophrenia (N = 40) P -value
Gender (M/F) 20/20 20/20 1.0
Age (years) 31.4 ± 9.8 33.0 ± 10.7 0.49
Smoker (%) 21 55 0.002
Cigarettes per day (if smoker) 8.1 ± 6.4 18.1 ± 11.3 0.03
Alcohol (drinks per week) 5 (2–10) 1 (0–5) 0.002
Exercise (hours per week) 3 (1–5) 0 (0–2) <0.001
Body Mass Index 25.1 ± 3.8 27.2 ± 5.7 0.06
Waist-hip ratio 0.80 ± 0.07 0.89 ± 0.08 <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 124.6 ± 11.6 127.1 ± 12.2 0.34
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78.9 ± 8.6 78.5 ± 7.3 0.37
Pulse (min−1) 64.6 ± 10.6 81.0 ± 14.3 <0.001
Metabolic Syndrome (y/n)a 2/37 11/27 <0.001
Perceived Stress Scale score 7.7 ± 4.2 22.3 ± 6.7 <0.001
Childhood Abuse and Trauma Scale score 11 (8–20) 39 (17–67) <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.7 ± 0.8 4.9 ± 0.9 0.44
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.5 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4 0.40
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.8 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.8 0.75
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.90 (0.70-1.15) 1.25 (0.76-2.00) 0.02
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.2 ± 0.4 5.1 ± 0.6 0.48
HbA1c (mmol/L) 5.2 ± 0.3 5.4 ± 0.4 0.01
Plasma Creatinine (μmol/L) 73 ± 16 69 ± 14 0.20
CRP (mg/L) 1 (1–2) 2 (1–4) 0.002
  1. Numbers are means ± standard deviation or medians (interquartile range). Data are analyzed with t-tests, Mann Whitney tests or Chi-squared tests, as appropriate. aAs defined in [25] (because of a few participants with missing values, the sum does not reach 40 in each group). Abbreviations:HDL High-density lipoprotein; LDL Low-density lipoprotein, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin. CRP: C-reactive protein.