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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the schizophrenia patients. Numbers are means ± standard deviation or medians (interquartile range)

From: Asymmetric dimethylarginine in somatically healthy schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics: a case–control study

Diagnosis, ICD-10  
Paranoid schizophrenia 55%
Undifferentiated schizophrenia 28%
Hebephrenic schizophrenia 12%
Unspecified schizophrenia 5%
Disease course  
Age of onset (years) 23.0 ± 5.3
Duration of illness (months) 76 (36–189)
Number of admissions 3 (1–6)
In-patient at inclusion 60%
Medication a  
Duration of current antipsychotic treatment (months) 20 (3–68)
Number of antipsychotics used  
One 77%
Two or three 23%
Antipsychotics, Defined Daily Doseb 1.5 (0.7–2.3)
Antidepressant use 43%
If antidepressant use, Defined Daily Dose 1.4 (1.0–2.0)
Benzodiazepine use 28%
If benzodiazepine use, Defined Daily Dose 0.6 (0.3–1.2)
Psychopathology  
PANSS positive score 22.2 ± 4.3
PANSS negative score 22.3 ± 5.6
PANSS general score 44.6 ± 8.5
PANSS total score 89.1 ± 16.5
  1. aAll patients received second-generation antipsychotics. Apart from the listed medications, three patients received anticholinergic agents, two patients received antiepileptics and one patient received electroconvulsive therapy. bAs defined by the World Health Organization.