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Table 2 Clinical comparison between GD patients according to the gambling preference

From: Comparative analysis of distinct phenotypes in gambling disorder based on gambling preferences

  Means and prevalence 1 Means or proportions comparisons
  Non-SG SG ϕ= mean difference or odds ratio; d=Cohen’s-d
  (n=1,709) (n=301) p ϕ 95% CI (ϕ) d
Smoker (yes); % 75.5% 61.2% <.001 0.51 0.39; 0.67 0.311
Number of cigarettes/day; mean 22.8 21.4 .148 1.39 −0.49; 3.27 0.110
Alcohol abuse (yes); % 15.5% 9.3% .007 0.56 0.37; 0.85 0.187
Other drugs abuse (yes); % 10.0% 9.3% .702 0.92 0.60; 1.41 0.025
Other addictive behaviours (yes); % 7.8% 11.1% .061 1.48 0.98; 2.23 0.113
Maximum bets (euros); mean 568.2 2938.5 <.001 −2370.3 −2665.5; −2075.1 0.603*
Mean bets (euros); mean 112.4 572.2 <.001 −459.8 −575.4; −344.1 0.337
Cumulate debts (euros); mean 7020.9 24327.7 <.001 −17306.8 −21163.1; −13450.5 0.397
Number of problematic forms of games ; mean 1.14 2.07 <.001 −0.93 −1.00; −0.86 1.059**
SOGS: Total score; mean 9.97 10.91 <.001 −0.94 −1.33; −0.54 0.287
DSM-IV. Total criteria; mean 6.92 7.38 <.001 −0.46 −0.71; −0.20 0.219
SCL-90-R: Somatization; mean 0.92 0.99 .215 −0.06 −0.17; 0.04 0.078
SCL-90-R: Obsessive/compulsive; mean 1.09 1.20 .039 −0.11 −0.21; −0.01 0.130
SCL-90-R: Interpersonal sensitivity; mean 1.00 1.06 .237 −0.06 −0.17; 0.04 0.075
SCL-90-R: Depressive; mean 1.42 1.57 .010 −0.15 −0.27; −0.04 0.162
SCL-90-R: Anxiety; mean 0.96 1.09 .013 −0.13 −0.23; −0.03 0.155
SCL-90-R: Hostility; mean 0.86 0.99 .016 −0.13 −0.23; −0.02 0.151
SCL-90-R: Phobic anxiety; mean 0.47 0.53 .155 −0.06 −0.15; 0.02 0.087
SCL-90-R: Paranoid Ideation; mean 0.86 0.91 .352 −0.05 −0.14; 0.05 0.058
SCL-90-R: Psychotic; mean 0.85 0.95 .034 −0.10 −0.20; −0.01 0.132
SCL-90-R: GSI score; mean 1.00 1.11 .019 −0.11 −0.19; −0.02 0.146
  1. Non-SG: Non-strategic gambling. SG: Strategic gambling.
  2. 1Logistic regression for categorical pathological measures and ANOVA for quantitative outcomes.
  3. Bold: significant contrast. *Bold: medium effect size (0.5≤d≤0.8). **Bold: large effect size (d≥0.80).
  4. DSM-IV: Diagnostic questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria. SOGS: South Oaks Gambling Screen.
  5. SCL-90-R: Symptom Check List- 90-Revised.
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