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Table 1 Mobile mindfulness training for smoking cessation modules and bonus module contents

From: A randomized controlled trial of smartphone-based mindfulness training for smoking cessation: a study protocol

Module Contents
1 Introduces the Craving to Quit program and mindfulness, introduces habit formation using an animation, and provides a guided mindful smoking exercise.
2 Setting personalized goals, e.g., list three reasons why you want to quit smoking, and provides a mindful smoking exercise.
3 Teaches body scan meditation, provides a guided body scan exercise, and provides a mindful smoking exercise.
4 Teaches how to work with cues, affective states, and craving using RAIN, and provides a RAIN exercise.
5 Introduces the concept of craving using an animation with the metaphor of craving as a tantrum toddler, i.e., let the toddler cry it out, and provides a RAIN exercise.
6 Teaches how to recognize triggers, e.g., list some of your triggers, and provides a RAIN exercise.
7 Expands on the concept of craving using an animation with the metaphor of craving as a fire, i.e., let the fire burn out, and provides a RAIN exercise.
8 Teaches how to use noting practice, i.e., the “N” of RAIN, in everyday life, and provides a noting practice exercise.
9 Teaches strategies for staying on track, and provides a noting exercise.
10 (Un)resistance Training, and provides a noting exercise.
11 Builds on noting practice by teaching curiosity, a core element of mindfulness, and provides a curiosity exercise.
12 Expands on the concept of craving and curiosity using an animation with the metaphor of a hot coal, asks “What do you get from smoking mindfully today?”
13 Teaches loving kindness meditation, provides a loving kindness exercise, and provides “Wild Geese” by Mary Oliver.
14 Teaches evaluating the costs & benefits of smoking, provides a loving kindness exercise.
15 Misperceptions about Quitting, tell a smoking buddy you are quitting today
16 Builds on noting and curiosity by teaching noting while walking meditation, provides a walking noting practice.
17 Teaches open awareness of thoughts, to work mindfully with thoughts that trigger smoking, using animations such as “Thoughts like a Radio.”
18 Builds on walking while noting with animations such as “Tripping on Thoughts,” “Autobiography in 5 short chapters” by Portia Nelson, provides a noting exercise.
19 Asks subjects to reflect on their own experience with treatment to gather evidence for how treatment helps with smoking cessation, noting practice with a particular eye out for doubt.
20 Provides tips on staying motivated and maintaining mindfulness practice, subjects write down a mantra to use and set mantra reminder.
21 Quit day ceremony, subjects tell a friend or family member that today is their quit day.
22 Incorporates mindfulness practices as a new, healthy habit, and instructs the user on which modules to return to if they relapse.
Bonus “Big Mind Meditation” audio by Joseph Goldstein; Tree Analogy for reinforcing noting video; Attitude is Everything video; “Mountain Meditation” audio by Joseph Goldstein; Sitting Meditation audio