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Table 2 Occurrence and persistence of psychological distress according to exposure to violence and odds ratios +

From: Direct and indirect exposure to violence and psychological distress among civil servants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a prospective cohort study

  Occurrence of psychological distress Persistence of psychological distress
Violence exposure N (%) * Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) *** N (%) ** Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) ***
Not exposed 384 (22.7) 1.00 1.00 454 (56.9) 1.00 1.00
Direct 55 (28.2) 1.34 (0.96-1.86) 1.31 (0.92-1.85) 93 (69.4) 1.72 (1.16-2.55) 1.57 (1.02-2.40)
Indirect 14 (23.0) 1.01 (0.55-1.86) 0.92 (0.48-1.78) 40 (76.9) 2.53 (1.31-4.89) 2.65 (1.33-5.28)
Direct/Indirect 13 (59.1) 4.92 (2.09-11.59) 6.52 (2.65-16.04) 19 (57.6) 1.03 (0.51-2.08) 1.07 (0.49-2.36)
  1. *p < 0.0001.
  2. **p=0.003.
  3. ***Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for sex, age, education, per capita household income, and alcohol consumption.
  4. +Pró-Saúde Study (2001–2007), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
  5. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval.