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Table 4 Sociodemographic and clinical comparison of autistic and non-autistic schizophrenics (GRAS sample)

From: Autism beyond diagnostic categories: characterization of autistic phenotypes in schizophrenia

  Autistic schizophrenia patients a Non-autistic schizophrenia patients a
  Men Women Men Women
  N = 75-80 N = 53-57 N = 86-96 N = 62-72
Sociodemographic variables     
Age at examination, mean ± SD, yb 42.1 ± 13.2 49.2 ± 14.5 36.3 ± 11.9 41 ± 10.9*
Ethnicity, No. (%), Caucasianc 76 (95) 53 (98.1) 92 (96.8) 71 (98.6)
Years of education, mean ± SDb 11 ± 2.7 11.2 ± 2.1 13.4 ± 3.1*** 14.2 ± 3.3***
Current occupation, No. (%), full-time workd 5 (6.3) 1 (1.8) 16 (16.8) 11 (15.1)
Marital status, No. (%), singlec 71 (88.8) 31 (54.4) 75 (78.9) 32 (43.8)
Children, No. (%), withoutc 70 (87.5) 28 (49.1) 78 (82.1) 39 (53.4)
Relationship status, No. (%), no relationshipc 67 (83.8) 31 (54.4) 68 (71.6) 26 (35.6)
Clinical variables     
Age at first episode, mean ± SD, yb 26.0 ± 9.2 30.8 ± 12.6 25.8 ± 7.2 29.1 ± 9.8
Duration of disease, mean ± SD, yb 16.3 ± 12.9 18.2 ± 14.4 10.6 ± 9.8 12.1 ± 9.6
Chlorpromazine equivalents, mean ± SDb 946 ± 863 972 ± 1321 562.4 ± 567* 401.6 ± 489**
Number of hospitalizations, mean ± SDb 10.8 ± 13 10.7 ± 11.5 5.7 ± 4.8 5 ± 4.6*
Premorbid intelligence, mean ± SD, IQe 95 ± 15 97 ± 13 108 ± 16*** 109 ± 14***
PANSS pos, mean ± SDb 19.4 ± 7 19.3 ± 8 9.1 ± 2.9*** 8.7 ± 2.5***
PANSS neg, mean ± SDb 32.6 ± 4.5 32.4 ± 4.2 8.1 ± 1.2*** 8 ± 1.1***
PANSS gen, mean ± SDb 50.5 ± 11.2 51.5 ± 10.8 20.7 ± 4.9*** 20.7 ± 4.2***
PANSS total, mean ± SDb 102.5 ± 19.1 103.5 ± 18.2 37.9 ± 7.4*** 37.4 ± 6.1***
GAF, mean ± SDb 30 ± 10.9 28.1 ± 9.9 62.2 ± 15.2*** 69.2 ± 14.2***
  1. Multiple testing adjusted significances (Bonferroni: p ≤ 0.003) for comparison of ‘autistic schizophrenia patients’ versus ‘non-autistic schizophrenia patients’ by gender are shown: * ≤ 0.001, ** ≤ 0.0001, *** ≤ 0.00001; due to missing data upon phenotyping sample size varies between N = 128-137 in the autistic schizophrenia group and N = 148-168 in the non-autistic schizophrenia group;aCompare with Figure1: ‘Autistic schizophrenia patients’ score above or equal to the 10thpercentile of the PAUSS distribution (PAUSS 30-52), ‘Non-autistic schizophrenia patients’ score below or equal to the first percentile of the PAUSS distribution (PAUSS 8-10);bMann-Whitney U-Test;cχ2-Test;dFisher’s exact test;ePremorbid intelligence was estimated by using the ‘Mehrfachwahlwortschatztest’ (MWT, multiple choice verbal comprehension test).