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Table 5 Sociodemographic and clinical comparison of ASD and disease-control samples

From: Autism beyond diagnostic categories: characterization of autistic phenotypes in schizophrenia

  ASD sample Disease-control sample  
   Personality disorders Psychotic disorders Other psychiatric disorders a No psychiatric disorder Total disease-control sample
  N = 106-165 N = 19-26 N = 6-13 N = 38-42 N = 17-19 N = 80-100
Sociodemographic variables       
Gender, No. (%), menb 108 (65.5) 21 (80.8) 7 (53.8) 30 (71.4) 12 (63.2) 71 (71)
Age at examination, mean ± SD, yearsb 32.2 ± 11 39.3 ± 12.8 32.6 ± 10.1 38.7 ± 14.3 38.1 ± 12 37.7 ± 13.1*
Years of education, mean ± SDb 15.3 ± 4.4 15.9 ± 4.8 12.1 ± 4 16.4 ± 4.1 17 ± 4.6 16 ± 4.5
Current occupation, No. (%), full-time workb 39 (23.6) 6 (23.1) 0 (0) 13 (31) 9 (47.4) 28 (28)
Marital status, No. (%), singlec 101 (61.2) 12 (46.2) 8 (61.5) 25 (59.5) 7 (36.8) 52 (52)
Children, No (%), nonec 103 (83.7) 12 (57.1) 6 (85.7) 27 (67.5) 9 (50)* 54 (62.1)**
Relationship status, No. (%), no relationshipc 68 (41.2) 11 (42.3) 5 (38.5) 23 (54.8) 6 (31.6) 45 (45)
Clinical variables       
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, IQ       
subtest comprehension 116 ± 19 113 ± 13 104 ± 19 114 ± 17 117 ± 14 113 ± 16
subtest similarities 115 ± 16 114 ± 13 101 ± 16 120 ± 20 117 ± 15 116 ± 18
subtest picture completion 107 ± 21 111 ± 18 98 ± 26 107 ± 21 111 ± 13 108 ± 19
subtest block design 109 ± 20 107 ± 18 95 ± 23 110 ± 17 111 ± 17 108 ± 18
estimated verbal IQ 115 ± 16 112 ± 10 103 ± 14 116 ± 18 117 ± 12 114 ± 15
estimated performance IQ 107 ± 18 106 ± 18 96 ± 21 108 ± 18 111 ± 12 107 ± 17
estimated total IQ 111 ± 15 110 ± 12 99 ± 17 112 ± 16 114 ± 11 111 ± 14
GAF, mean ± SDb 71 ± 16.2 75.7 ± 11.2 52.5 ± 13 74.4 ± 14.8 87.6 ± 5.3*** 75.5 ± 15
PANSS autism severity score, mean ± SDb 20.5 ± 7.7 13.3 ± 3.6*** 24.1 ± 9.6 11.4 ± 3.7*** 9.8 ± 2.2*** 13.3 ± 6.6***
ADOS original algorithm Module 4, mean ± SDb 11.9 ± 4.2 4.3 ± 4.4*** 10 ± 4.8 2.5 ± 2.8*** 2.9 ± 2.2*** 3.8 ± 3.9***
Autism Quotient (AQ), mean ± SDb,d 23.5 ± 5.7 24 ± 3.6 20.7 ± 4 23.3 ± 5.7 23.2 ± 5.1 23.4 ± 5.1
Empathy Quotient (EQ), mean ± SDb,e 17.5 ± 8 17.8 ± 8.3 25.1 ± 8.7 21.2 ± 11.6 15.6 ± 9.3 19.4 ± 17.5
  1. Multiple testing adjusted significances (Bonferroni: p ≤ 0.002) for comparison of each diagnostic group with ASD group are shown: * ≤ 0.001, ** ≤ 0.0001, *** ≤ 0.00001; due to missing data upon phenotyping, sample size varies between N = 186-265 in the total sample; a this category includes affective disorders, attention deficit disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, anxiety disorders, alcohol use disorders; b Mann-Whitney U test; c Chi-square test; d Higher values correspond to more autistic traits; e Higher values correspond to more empathy (i.e. less autistic traits).