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Table 6 Sociodemographic and clinical comparison of ASD and disease-control samples by gender

From: Autism beyond diagnostic categories: characterization of autistic phenotypes in schizophrenia

  ASD sample   Disease-control sample a  
  Men Women p-value Men Women p-value
  N = 70-107 N = 37-58   N = 58-71 N = 21-29  
Sociodemographic variables       
Age at examination, mean ± SD, yearsb 31.3 ± 11.3 34.1 ± 10.3 .050 37.6 ± 13.9 38 ± 11.2 .747
Years of education, mean ± SDb 14.6 ± 4.1 16.5 ± 4.8 .040 15.9 ± 4.4 16.2 ± 4.8 .529
Current occupation, No. (%), full-time workb 25 (23.4) 14 (24.1) 1.00 18 (25.4) 10 (34.5) .462
Marital status, No. (%), singlec 67 (62.6) 34 (58.6) .620 40 (56.3) 12 (41.4) .193
Children, No (%), nonec 68 (86.1) 35 (81.4) .602 42 (66.7) 12 (50) .216
Relationship status, No. (%), no relationshipc 47 (43.9) 21 (36.2) .408 35 (49.3) 10 (34.5) .192
Clinical variables       
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, IQ       
subtest comprehension 117 ± 20 115 ± 18 .396 113 ± 17 114 ± 12 .949
subtest similarities 114 ± 17 117 ± 13 .465 116 ± 18 117 ± 18 .705
subtest picture completion 105 ± 23 113 ± 17 .072 108 ± 20 107 ± 18 .728
subtest block design 108 ± 22 110 ± 17 .711 108 ± 18 108 ± 17 .643
estimated verbal IQ 115 ± 17 116 ± 13 .937 114 ± 16 115 ± 13 .825
estimated performance IQ 106 ± 20 111 ± 15 .143 107 ± 18 108 ± 15 .851
estimated total IQ 110 ± 17 113 ± 12 .302 111 ± 16 111 ± 12 .837
GAF, mean ± SDb 69.4 ± 17.1 74 ± 14.2 .191 75.1 ± 14.7 76.5 ± 15.8 .509
PANSS autism severity score, mean ± SDb 20.3 ± 7.7 20.1 ± 7.5 .842 13.3 ± 6.5 13.5 ± 6.7 .597
ADOS original algorithm Module 4, mean ± SDb 11.9 ± 4.1 12 ± 4.3 .962 3.9 ± 4 3.4 ± 3.8 .691
Autism Quotient (AQ), mean ± SDb,d 22.3 ± 5.9 25.6 ± 4.7 .006 22.8 ± 5.3 25 ± 4.2 .071
Empathy Quotient (EQ), mean ± SDb,e 18.6 ± 8 15.4 ± 7.6 .044 20.4 ± 10.2 16.7 ± 10.5 .108
  1. Multiple testing adjusted significances (Bonferroni: p ≤ 0.002) for comparison of each diagnostic group with ASD group are shown: due to missing data upon phenotyping, sample size varies between N = 186-265 in the total sample; a this category includes affective disorders, attention deficit disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, anxiety disorders, alcohol use disorders; b Mann-Whitney U test; c Chi-square test; d Higher values correspond to more autistic traits; e Higher values correspond to more empathy (i.e. less autistic traits).