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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of participantsa

From: Reduced cortical thickness in right Heschl’s gyrus associated with auditory verbal hallucinations severity in first-episode schizophrenia

  AH NH HC Chi-Square Analysis/t tests
(n = 18) (n = 31) (n = 50) F/χ2/t p Post Hoc
Demographics       
 Age, yearsb 24.11(6.27) 24.29(5.92) 24.98(6.60) F = .18 .835  
 Sex,n(% male) 12(66.67 %) 17(54.80 %) 25(50.00 %) χ2 = 1.48 .479  
 Education, yearsc 12.42(2.92) 12.50(2.22) 13.2(2.16) F = 1.22 .299  
 Duration of illness,monthsd 6.33(4.78) 7.09(4.48)   t = −.56 .579  
 WAIS-Information 17.89(6.07) 16.31 (4.42) 20.22(4.50) F = −3.32 .002* NH < HC
 WAIS-Digit symbol 66.00(16.97) 68.00(15.61) 86.56(16.01) F = −6.14 <.001* AH, NH < HC
Clinical Variables       
 AHRS 27.06(6.32)      
 SAPS       
  Global rating of Hallucinations 2.78(1.93) .45(1.12)   t = 5.36 <.001*  
  Global rating of Delusions 2.27(1.45) 2.81(1.80)   t = −1.06 .293  
  Global rating of BizarreBehaviour .56(1.20) .87(1.15)   t = −.91 .366  
  Global rating of Positive Formal Thought Disorder .83(1.25) .68(1.17)   t = .44 .662  
  Total 27.78(14.65) 16.67(11.52)   t = 2.94 .005*  
  Total – Hallucinations 14.89(10.82) 15.58(11.25)   t = −.21 0.834  
 SANS       
  Global Rating of Affective Flattening 1.06(1.21) 1.35(1.50)   t = −.72 .474  
  Global Rating of Alogia 0.83(1.20) 1.26(1.44)   t = −1.06 .296  
  Global Rating of Avolition - Apathy 1.28(1.23) 1.68(1.70)   t = −.87 .388  
  Global Rating of Anhedonia- Asociality 1.67(1.33) 2.42(1.59)   t = −1.70 .097  
  Global Rating of Attention 0.83(0.92) 1.10(1.40)   t = −.71 .480  
  Total 21.44(19.92) 30.12(25.44)   t = −1.24 .220  
 Chlorpromazine equivalents (mg) 189.35(62.09) 250.53(201.54)   t = −1.25 .218  
  1. *p < .05
  2. HC healthy controls, AH hallucinating patients with schizophrenia, NH non-hallucinating patients with schizophrenia, Total-Hallucinations total SAPS score minus hallucinations subscales score
  3. AHRS Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale, SAPS Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, WASI Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence
  4. aMean and SD are reported unless otherwise specified. Analyses of demographics and clinical data wereperformed in SPSS (http://www.spss.com). All tests were two-tailed
  5. bAge was defined as age at the time of magnetic resonance imaging scanning
  6. cYears of education refers to the total number of years of completed education as reported by the participant
  7. dDuration of illness was defined as number of years between age at onset and age at MRI scanning