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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of Chinese type 2 diabetic patients categorised by validated cutoff values of PHQ-9 and CES-D

From: Measuring depression with CES-D in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: the validity and its comparison to PHQ-9

  Total CES-D <21 CES-D ≥21 p value PHQ-9 < 7 PHQ-9 ≥ 7 P value
Number 545 448 97 (17.8)   449 96 (17.6)  
CES-D score 13.0 ± 8.6 9.9 ± 5.3 27.4 ± 5.6 <0.001 11.0 ± 6.9 22.3 ± 9.5 <0.001
PHQ-9 score 3.5 ± 4.4 2.3 ± 2.7 8.8 ± 6.2 <0.001 1.8± 1.8 11.2± 4.6 <0.001
Age (years) 54.6 ± 9.5 54.7 ± 9.7 54.4 ± 8.6 0.807 54.4 ± 9.4 55.4 ± 9.9 0.339
Women 225 (41.3) 173 (38.6) 52 (53.6) 0.007 170 (37.9) 55 (57.3) <0.001
Disease duration (years) 6.0 (3.0,11.0) 7.0 (3.0,10.3) 6.0 (3.0,13.0) 0.867 7.0 (4.0,10.8) 6.0 (2.0-13.0) 0.568
Education     0.555    0.073
Illiterate/primary school 142 (26.1) 117 (26.1) 25 (25.8)   113 (25.2) 29 (30.2)  
Middle school 275 (50.5) 222 (49.6) 53 (54.6)   222 (49.4) 53 (55.2)  
High school and above 128 (23.5) 109 (24.3) 19 (19.6)   114 (25.4) 14 (14.6)  
In employment 307 (56.3) 259 (57.8) 48 (19.5) 0.134 266 (59.2) 41 (42.7) 0.003
Current smoker 56 (10.3) 49 (11.0) 7 (7.2) 0.271 43 (9.6) 13 (13.5) 0.249
Exercise ≥3 times/week 262 (48.1) 216 (48.2) 46 (47.4) 0.887 217 (48.3) 45 (46.9) 0.796
SMBG ≥ weekly 278 (51.0) 234 (52.2) 44 (45.4) 0.22 232 (51.7) 46 (47.9) 0.504
Cardio-metabolic risk factors       
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.1 ± 4.4 26.1 ± 4.3 26.0 ± 4.9 0.802 26.1 ± 4.4 26.0 ± 4.6 0.902
Systolic BP (mmHg) 130.6 ± 15.7 130.3 ± 15.5 132.3 ± 16.7 0.255 130.4 ± 15.6 131.7 ± 16.2 0.464
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 79.6 ± 10.0 79.3 ± 9.9 80.9 ± 10.5 0.158 79.5 ± 10.0 80.2 ± 10.2 0.510
Waist circumference, men (cm) 91.2 ± 10.5 91.1 ± 10.2 91.8 ± 12.1 0.713 91.3 ± 10.4 90.7 ± 11.3 0.742
Waist circumference, women (cm) 86.1 ± 11.1 85.8 ± 10.9 87.2 ± 11.7 0.421 85.8 ± 11.5 87.0 ± 10.0 0.475
HbA1c (%) 7.5 ± 1.4 7.5 ± 1.4 7.7 ± 1.6 0.238 7.4 ± 1.3 7.9 ± 1.9 0.045
HbA1c (mmol/L) 58.6 ± 15.7 58.3 ± 15.2 60.4 ± 18.0 0.238 57.8 ± 14.2 62.4 ± 21.2 0.045
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.50 ± 0.88 4.48 ± 0.87 4.60 ± 0.91 0.247 4.52 ± 0.89 4.40 ± 0.84 0.200
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.34 ± 0.37 1.33 ± 0.37 1.35 ± 0.36 0.632 1.35 ± 0.37 1.30 ± 0.37 0.223
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.49 ± 0.71 2.48 ± 0.70 2.56 ± 0.75 0.284 2.51 ± 0.71 2.42 ± 0.72 0.324
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 109.0 ± 23.7 109.3 ± 23.4 108.1 ± 24.9 0.654 109.3 ± 23.8 108.0 ± 23.2 0.653
Spot urinary ACR 1.10 (0.48,4.02) 1.09 (0.48,3.90) 1.11 (0.51,4.56) 0.442 1.05 (0.44,3.90) 1.25 (0.62,5.03) 0.096
Hypertension 430 (78.9) 356 (79.5) 74 (76.3) 0.487 349 (77.7) 81 (84.4) 0.147
Dyslipidaemia 463 (85.3) 383 (85.9) 80 (82.5) 0.345 380 (85.0) 83 (86.5) 0.717
Albuminuria 166 (30.5) 136 (30.4) 30 (30.9) 0.912 135 (30.1) 31 (32.3) 0.667
Diabetes-related complications       
Cardiovascular disease 53 (9.7) 42 (9.4) 11 (11.3) 0.554 40 (8.9) 13 (13.5) 0.164
Retinopathy 112 (20.6) 91 (20.3) 21 (21.6) 0.786 95 (21.2) 17 (17.7) 0.448
Chronic kidney disease 10 (1.8) 8 (1.8) 2 (2.1) 0.695 8 (1.8) 2 (2.1) 0.689
Sensory neuropathy 13 (2.4) 7 (1.6) 6 (6.2) 0.016 7 (1.6) 6 (6.2) 0.015
Medication, target achievement       
Use of insulin 87 (16.0) 73 (16.3) 14 (14.4) 0.65 73 (16.3) 14 (14.6) 0.684
On OAD 492 (90.3) 402 (89.7) 90 (92.8) 0.358 402 (89.5) 90 (93.8) 0.206
Use of antihypertensive drugs 324 (59.4) 269 (60.0) 55 (56.7) 0.543 261 (58.1) 63 (65.6) 0.704
Use of lipid lowering drugs 265 (48.6) 223 (49.8) 42 (43.3) 0.247 208 (46.3) 57 (59.4) 0.02
Concurrent use of psychotropic drugs 44 (8.2) 16 (4.3) 28 (16.7) <0.001 27 (6.1) 17 (17.7) <0.001
HBA1C < 7.0 % (53 mmol/L) 218 (40.0) 181 (40.4) 37 (38.1) 0.681 187 (41.6) 31 (32.3) 0.089
LDL-C < 2.6 mmol/L 312 (57.2) 255 (56.9) 57 (58.8) 0.739 252 (56.1) 60 (62.5) 0.252
BP < 130/80 mmHg 206 (37.8) 173 (38.6) 33 (34.0) 0.397 175 (39.0) 31 (32.3) 0.22
  1. PHQ-9 Patients Health Questionnaire-9, CES-D 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression, SMBG Self-monitoring of blood glucose, BP Blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ACR albumin-to-creatinine ratio, OAD Oral antidiabetic drugs
  2. Data are shown as mean ± SD, number (%) or median (interquartile range)
  3. The definitions of risk factors and complications were as follows: hypertension = known high blood pressure with or without treatment and/or blood pressure ≥ 130/80 mmHg; dyslipidaemia = LDL-C ≥ 2.6mmol/L, HDL-C < 1.0 mmol/L, triglycerides ≥ 2.3 mmol/L, or on any lipid-lowering agents; albuminuria = sport urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥ 2.5 mg/mmol in men or ≥ 3.5 mg/mmol in women; chronic kidney disease = eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, cardiovascular disease = coronary heart disease, stroke, and/or peripheral vascular disease