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Table 2 Item scores, internal reliability, factor loadings and inter-factor correlations of CES-D

From: Measuring depression with CES-D in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: the validity and its comparison to PHQ-9

  Score Internal reliability (α = 0.852) Factor loadingsb
  Mean SD Corrected item-total correlation α if item deleteda Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4
1. I was bothered by things that usually don’t bother me. 0.72 0.84 0.56    0.73   
2. I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor. 0.36 0.68 0.31    0.65   
3. I felt that I could not shake off the blues even with help from my family or friends. 0.40 0.71 0.62   0.69    
4. I felt I was just as good as other people. 1.65 1.19 0.17 0.86    0.77  
5. I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing 0.49 0.70 0.50    0.69   
6. I felt depressed. 0.47 0.72 0.66   0.77    
7. I felt that everything I did was an effort. 0.48 0.72 0.48    0.65   
8. I felt hopeful about the future 1.50 1.20 0.21 0.86    0.80  
9. I thought my life had been a failure. 0.44 0.77 0.56   0.67    
10. I felt fearful 0.44 0.74 0.62   0.76    
11. My sleep was restless. 0.66 0.85 0.46    0.64   
12. I was happy. 1.39 1.16 0.33 0.85    0.87  
13. I talked less than usual. 0.61 0.84 0.51    0.62   
14. I felt lonely. 0.45 0.76 0.63   0.73    
15. People were unfriendly 0.39 0.66 0.51      0.88
16. I enjoyed life. 1.36 1.19 0.30 0.86    0.88  
17. I had crying spells. 0.35 0.68 0.46   0.74    
18. I felt sad 0.39 0.70 0.64   0.87    
19. I felt that people dislike me 0.33 0.62 0.43      0.88
20. I could not get “going.” 0.14 0.48 0.51   0.65    
Factor score      3.1 ± 4.2 3.3 ± 3.2 5.9 ± 3.9 0.7 ± 1.2
Inter-factor correlation         
Factor 1      1.00 0.75* 0.04 0.53*
Factor 2       1.00 −0.05 0.49*
Factor 3        1.00 −0.02
  1. aOnly those with increased Cronbach’s α if item deleted were shown in the table
  2. bFactor 1: Depressed affect; factor 2: somatic symptoms; factor 3: positive affect; factor 4: Interpersonal problems
  3. *P for Pearson correlation (r) <0.0001. The correlations between positive affect and other subscales were not significant