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Table 4 Exploratory outcomes

From: Indoor rock climbing (bouldering) as a new treatment for depression: study design of a waitlist-controlled randomized group pilot study and the first results

  Intervention group (n = 22) Waitlist group (n = 25) T-Test for independent samples U-Test Cohen’s d
Scale ∆M (SD) ∆M (SD) t p U, z p  
Depression        
 BDI-II (primary hypothesis) −6.27(5.64) −1.40 (6.94) t(45) = 2.62 .012* U = 156.50, z = -2.53 .011* 0.77
 Depression (SCL-90-R) −4.55 (4.38) −1.96 (4.06) t(45) = 2.10 .041* U = 177.00, z = -2.10 .036* 0.62
Anxiety        
 Phobic anxiety (SCL-90-R) −2.77 (6.03) −1.52 (9.13) t(45) = 0.55 .587 U = 251.00, z = -0.52 .606 0.16
 Anxietya (SCL-90-R) −5.09 (8.23) −1.28 (6.48) t(45) = 1.77 .083 U = 182.50, z = -1.98 .048* 0.52
Social competence        
 Interpersonal sensitivity (SCL-90-R) −5.23 (7.07) −1.76 (4.63) t(45) = 2.01 .050 U = 191.00, z = -1.80 .071 0.59
 Social supporta (FERUS) 0.95 (8.85) 2.20 (5.13) t(45) = 0.60 .552 U = 236.50, z = -0.83 .409 0.18
Self-management        
 Active and passive coping (FERUS) 6.32 (8.49) 0.60 (5.39) t(34.74) = -2.71 .010* U = 163.50, z = -2.39 .017* 0.82
 Self-efficacy (FERUS) 3.72 (6.96) −0.20 (5.58) t(45) = -2.15 .037* U = 171.50, z = -1.24 .025* 0.63
 Self-verbalisation (FERUS) 3.91 (6.16) 0.80 (6.06) t(45) = -1.74 .089 U = 195.50, z = -1.71 .088 0.51
Concentration        
 Concentrationa (d2-R) 2.09 (6.02) 1.12 (10.01) t(45) = -0.40 .694 U = 271.00, z = -0.09 .932 0.12
Further outcomes        
 Obsessive-compulsivea (SCL-90-R) −4.77 (4.80) −1.80 (3.25) t(36.23) = 2.45 .019* U = 175.00, z = -2.16 .031* 0.73
  1. Comparison of differences between t0 and t1. Negative values on the SCL-90-R indicate improvements in symptoms, positive values on the FERUS and d2 indicate improvements in abilities
  2. adeviations from a normal distribution (Shapiro-Wilk Test)
  3. *p-values < .05