Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive characteristics for depression (N = 423) and community groups (N = 424)

From: Longitudinal changes in somatic symptoms and family disagreements among depression and community groups: a 23-year study

  DepressionM (SD) Community M (SD) t-tests or χ2 tests Cohen’s d Depression Median (Range) Community Median (Range)
Covariates       
Age in years 39.9 (14.1) 39.4 (15.6) −.56ns   37 (18–83) 35 (18–88)
Female % 56 % 54 % .15ns    
White % 84.6 % 88.4 % 2.60ns    
Education in years 13.3 (2.3) 14.1 (2.3) 4.95*** .35 13 (8–17) 14 (8–17)
Medical conditions .97 (1.22) .46 (.84) −7.02*** .49 1 (0–8) 0 (0–6)
Somatic symptoms       
T1 5.5 (3.17) 2.3 (2.54) −16.5*** 1.11 5 (0–12) 1.5 (0–12)
T2 4.7 (3.27) 2.2 (2.60) −12.18*** .85 4 (0–12) 1 (0–12)
T3 4.1 (3.14) 2.1 (2.39) −9.61*** .72 3 (0–12) 1 (0–11)
T4 3.6 (3.00) 1.7 (2.08) −9.48*** .74 3 (0–12) 1 (0–10)
T5 3.8 (2.91) 2.1 (2.44) −7.3*** .63 3 (0–12) 1 (0–11)
Family disagreements       
T1 3.5 (2.88) 2.6 (2.58) −4.6*** .33 3 (0–14) 2 (0–14)
T2 3.2 (2.75) 2.4 (2.46) −4.22*** .31 3 (0–14) 2 (0–13)
T3 2.9 (2.81) 2.4 (2.46) −2.66** .19 2 (0–12) 2 (0–10)
T4 2.8 (2.68) 2.1 (2.17) −3.38*** .29 2 (0–14) 2 (0–10)
T5 2.1 (2.40) 2.0 (2.28) −.6ns   1 (0–10) 1 (0–10)
  1. T1 to T5 = baseline, 1 year, 4, 10, and 23 years follow-up
  2. *p < .05 **p < .01 ***p < .001. ns nosignificant