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Table 2 Association of chronic diseases and history of mental health problem with anxiety among participants (n = 1455)

From: Prevalence, associated factors and predictors of anxiety: a community survey in Selangor, Malaysia

Medical history Presence of anxiety Absence of anxiety Total OR (95 % CI) p-value
(GAD-7 ≥ 8) (GAD-7 < 8)
n (%) n (%)
Presence of chronic diseases      
 Yes 45 (12.6) 313 (87.4) 358 1.863 (1.312-2.646) **0.001
 No 74 (6.7) 1023 (93.3) 1097   
Heart disease      
 Yes 3 (10.0) 27 (90.0) 30 1.228 (0.414-3.645) 0.731
 No 116 (8.1) 1309 (91.9) 1425   
Diabetes      
 Yes 8 (7.0) 106 (93.0) 114 0.848 (0.425-1.693) 0.637
 No 111 (8.3) 1230 (91.7) 1341   
Stroke      
 Yes 3 (30.0) 7 (70.0) 10 3.737 (1.427-9.787) *0.042
 No 116 (8.0) 1329 (92.0) 1445   
Hypertension      
 Yes 20 (11.8) 150 (88.2) 170 1.527 (0.971-2.402) 0.069
 No 99 (7.7) 1186 (92.3) 1285   
Arthritis      
 Yes 8 (21.6) 29 (78.4) 37 2.762 (1.458-5.233) **0.008
 No 111 (7.8) 1307 (92.2) 1418   
Cancer      
 Yes 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 6 6.246 (2.754-14.166) **0.009
 No 116 (8.0) 1333 (92.0) 1449   
Asthma      
 Yes 11 (13.3) 72 (86.7) 83 1.684 (0.943-3.005) 0.082
 No 108 (7.9) 1264 (92.1) 1372   
Kidney failure      
 Yes 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0) 2 Not calculated 1.000
 No 119 (8.2) 1334 (91.8) 1453   
Thyroidism      
 Yes 2 (22.2) 7 (77.8) 9 2.746 (0.799-9.439) 0.164
 No 117 (8.1) 1329 (91.9) 1446   
History of mental health problems      
 Yes 13 (43.3) 17 (56.7) 30 5.825 (3.721-9.121) **0.001
 No 106 (7.4) 1319 (92.6) 1425   
Family history of mental health problems      
 Yes 10 (22.7) 34 (77.3) 44 2.942 (1.657-5.223) **0.002
 No 109 (7.7) 1302 (92.3) 1411   
Disability      
 Yes 8 (53.3) 7 (46.7) 15 6.919 (4.171-11.476) **0.001
 No 111 (7.7) 1329 (92.3) 1440   
  1. *significant at p < 0.05 **significant at p < 0.001