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Table 1 Factors associated with BDI-II score (unadjusted and adjusted for sex and age)

From: Factors associated with depression among adolescents living with HIV in Malawi

Variable Mean (SD, N)/N (%) Unadjusted Beta Coef (95 % CI) Unadjusted p-value Adjusted Beta Coef(95 % CI) Adjusted p-value
Socio-demographic factors
School Grade
  Not in school or Junior Primary School 176 (31.3) 2.37 [0.68-4.06] 0.02 5.25 [3.23-7.26] <0.0001
Senior Primary School 229 (40.7) 1.62 [0.02-3.22] 3.5 [1.78-5.22]
Secondary School or Tertiary 157 (27.9) Reference Reference
Family’s estimated combined income
  Less than 14,000 MK per month 171 (31.8) 0.36 [−1.29-2.02] 0.61 0.38 [−1.26-2.02] 0.64
14,000 -49,999 MK per month 117 (21.8) −0.85 [−2.69-0.99] −0.79 [−2.61-1.03]
More than 50,000 per month 71 (13.2) −0.48 [−2.65-1.68] −0.37 [−2.52-1.77]
I do not know 178 (33.1) Reference Reference
Location of home
  In the city 369 (65.7) −1.24 [−2.98-0.50] 0.06 −1.49 [−3.22-0.25] 0.06
Just outside the city 93 (16.5) 0.74 [−1.48-2.97] 0.3 [−1.92-2.52]
Rural area 100 (17.8) Reference Reference
Time it takes to get to the clinic from home
  0-30minutes 71 (12.7) −0.88 [−2.96-1.20] 0.71 −0.92 [−2.98-1.15] 0.67
31-60 minutes 229 (40.8) −0.15 [−1.56-1.25] −0.36 [−1.76-1.04]
>60 minutes 261 (46.5) Reference Reference
Primary caregiver type
  Father/Mother 178 (31.7) −1.63 [−3.39-0.13] 0.01 −1.36 [−3.12-0.39] 0.02
Both parents 112 (19.9) −3.39 [−5.36--1.42] −3.09 [−5.06--1.12]
Uncle/Aunt 138 (24.6) −1.5 [−3.37-0.37] −1.32 [−3.18-0.54]
Other/Grandparent 134 (23.8) Reference Reference
Past-traumatic events/stressors
Maternal death or employment status
  Not working 106 (18.9) −0.95 [−2.71-0.80] 0.01 −0.8 [−2.55-0.95] 0.03
Self-employed 103 (18.3) −1.51 [−3.29-0.26] −1.37 [−3.14-0.40]
Employed by someone else 73 (13) −3.22 [−5.24--1.19] −2.97 [−4.99--0.95]
Died 280 (49.8) Reference Reference
Change in caregiver
  No change in caregiver 422 (75.2) −1.59 [−3.10--0.08] 0.04 −1.59 [−3.09--0.09] 0.04
Caregiver has changed once or more 139 (24.8) Reference Reference
Experience of family/household deaths
  Nobody in my family has died 149 (26.5) −2.42 [−3.89--0.95] 0.001 −2.51 [−3.97--1.05] 0.0008
One or more people have died 413 (73.5) Reference Reference
Failed school term/class
  No 327 (58.9) −1.64 [−2.97--0.31] 0.02 −1.73 [−3.05--0.41] 0.01
Yes 228 (41.1) Reference Reference
Experience of forced sex, physical abuse, or witnessed physical violence in the home
  No 477 (84.9) −3.16 [−4.97--1.35] 0.0006 −2.97 [−4.79--1.15] 0.001
Yes 85 (15.1) Reference Reference
Experience of being bullied for one’s physical appearance
  No 427 (76.1) −3.11 [−4.62--1.59] 0.0001 −2.78 [−4.31--1.25] 0.0004
Yes 134 (23.9) Reference Reference
Experience of being bullied for taking medicines
  No 459 (88.4) −5.7 [−7.75--3.64] <0.0001 −5.3 [−7.40--3.19] <0.0001
Yes 60 (11.6) Reference Reference
Hospital admissions in the past year
  No 510 (90.7) −2.08 [−4.34-0.17] 0.07 −2.13 [−4.36-0.10] 0.06
Yes 52 (9.3) Reference Reference
Behavioral factors/social support
Experience of being in a romantic relationship that did not involve sex
  Never had a boyfriend/girlfriend 479 (85.4) −3.52 [−5.35--1.69] 0.0002 −2.96 [−4.96--0.96] 0.004
Yes, in the past or current 82 (14.6) Reference Reference
Satisfaction with the way I look (physical appearance)
  I am very happy with the way I look 460 (82) −4.65 [−6.31--2.99] <0.0001 −4.34 [−6.00--2.68] <0.0001
I am somewhat/ not at all satisfied with the way I look 101 (18) Reference Reference
Use of alcohol in the past 30 days
  Never 547 (97.3) −7.76 [−11.77--3.74] 0.0002 −7.35 [−11.35--3.36] 0.0003
Once a month or more 15 (2.7) Reference Reference
HIV disclosure status*
  Disclosed and have shared with someone 273 (48.6) 0.19 [−1.59-1.97] 0.09 0.98 [−2.86-0.97] 0.02
Disclosed, have not shared with anyone 184 (32.7) 1.68 [−0.21-3.57] 0.98 [−0.74-3.12]
Not disclosed 105 (18.7) Reference   Reference  
Age at disclosure 12.35 (1.63, 457) 0.55 [0.10-1.00] 0.02 0.42 [−0.09-0.92] 0.11
Bio-clinical parameters
Child on ART
  No 36 (6.4) 0.83 [−1.84-3.50] 0.54 0.99 [−1.66-3.64] 0.46
Yes 526 (93.6) Reference Reference
Efavirenz based ART regimen
  No 526 (93.6) −0.71 [−3.38-1.96] 0.60 −0.71 [−3.36-1.95] 0.60
Yes 36 (6.4) Reference Reference
Second line ART regimen
  No 491 (87.4) 0.68 [−1.29-2.65] 0.50 0.65 [−1.33-2.63] 0.52
Yes 71 (12.6) Reference Reference
History of TB treatment
  No 309 (55) 0.77 [−0.54-2.09] 0.25 0.75 [−0.55-2.06] 0.26
Yes 253 (45) Reference Reference
Initial WHO stage
  WHO stage 1-2 160 (28.7) −0.12 [−1.57-1.34] 0.87 0.03 [−1.42-1.47] 0.97
WHO Stage 3-4 398 (71.3) Reference Reference
Most recent CD4 count 516 (307, 509) 0 [−0.01--0.00] 0.009 0 [−0.00--0.00] 0.02
HIV immunological classification (based on CD4)
  None or not significant 235 (46.2) −2.34 [−4.18--0.49] 0.03 −2.26 [−4.09--0.43] 0.05
Mild 112 (22) −0.94 [−3.05-1.18] −1 [−3.09-1.09]
Advanced 68 (13.4) −0.16 [−2.56-2.25] −0.15 [−2.53-2.22]
Severe 94 (18.5) Reference Reference
Current nutritional status
  Normal 544 (96.8) −2.44 [−6.15-1.28] 0.20 −3.14 [−6.83-0.56] 0.10
Malnourished 18 (3.2) Reference Reference
BMI for age z-score −0.88 (1.18, 561) 0.08 [−0.48-0.63] 0.79 −0.19 [−0.76-0.39] 0.52
Height for age z-score −1.79 (1.16, 561) −0.98 [−1.54-0.42] 0.0006 −1.31 [−1.88-0.74] <0.0001