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Table 2 Factors associated with depression (CDRS-R score >55) (unadjusted and adjusted for sex and age)

From: Factors associated with depression among adolescents living with HIV in Malawi

  Variable Mean (SD, N)/N (%) N (%) Unadjusted OR (95 % CI) Unadjusted p-value (overall) Adjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjusted p-value (overall)
Socio-demographic factors
School Grade
  Not in school/Junior Primary School 176 (31.3) 35 (19.9) 1.45 [0.81-2.57] 0.27 2.82 [1.39-5.73] 0.009
  Senior Primary School 229 (40.7) 48 (21) 1.54 [0.90-2.66] 2.36 [1.29-4.32]
  Secondary School or Tertiary 157 (27.9) 23 (14.6) Reference Reference
Family’s estimated combined income
  Less than 14,000 MK per month 171 (31.8) 36 (21.1) 1.32 [0.77-2.25] 0.24 1.33 [0.77-2.28] 0.23
  14,000 -49,999 MK per month 117 (21.8) 16 (13.7) 0.78 [0.40-1.51] 0.79 [0.41-1.54]
  More than 50,000 per month 71 (13.2) 17 (23.9) 1.55 [0.79-3.04] 1.61 [0.82-3.16]
  I do not know 178 (33.1) 30 (16.9) Reference Reference
Location of home
  In the city 369 (65.7) 67 (18.2) 0.83 [0.48-1.45] 0.81 0.78 [0.45-1.36] 0.69
  Just outside the city 93 (16.5) 18 (19.4) 0.9 [0.45-1.83] 0.81 [0.40-1.65]
  Rural area 100 (17.8) 21 (21) Reference Reference
Time it take to get to the clinic from home
  0-30minutes 71 (12.7) 14 (19.7) 1.25 [0.64-2.43] 0.38 1.22 [0.62-2.40] 0.50
  31-60 minutes 229 (40.8) 49 (21.4) 1.38 [0.88-2.17] 1.31 [0.83-2.08]
  >60 minutes 261 (46.5) 43 (16.5) Reference Reference
Primary caregiver type
  Father/Mother 178 (31.7) 33 (18.5) 0.64 [0.38-1.10] 0.04 0.68 [0.39-1.17] 0.07
  Both parents 112 (19.9) 13 (11.6) 0.37 [0.19-0.74] 0.4 [0.20-0.81]
  Uncle/Aunt 138 (24.6) 25 (18.1) 0.63 [0.35-1.12] 0.64 [0.36-1.15]
  Other/Grandparent 134 (23.8) 35 (26.1) Reference Reference
Past-traumatic events/stressors
Maternal death or employment status
  Not working 106 (18.9) 19 (17.9) 0.77 [0.43-1.36] 0.21 0.8 [0.45-1.43] 0.31
  Self-employed 103 (18.3) 14 (13.6) 0.55 [0.29-1.04] 0.58 [0.30-1.09]
  Employed by someone else 73 (13) 11 (15.1) 0.62 [0.31-1.26] 0.67 [0.33-1.36]
  Died 280 (49.8) 62 (22.1) Reference Reference
Change in caregiver
  No change in caregiver 422 (75.2) 70 (16.6) 0.57 [0.36-0.90] 0.02 0.57 [0.36-0.90] 0.02
  Caregiver has changed once or more 139 (24.8) 36 (25.9) Reference   Reference  
Experience of family/household deaths
  Nobody in my family has died 149 (26.5) 22 (14.8) 0.68 [0.41-1.13] 0.14 0.67 [0.40-1.12] 0.12
  One or more people have died 413 (73.5) 84 (20.3) Reference Reference
Failed school term/class
  No 327 (58.9) 55 (16.8) 0.78 [0.51-1.20] 0.26 0.76 [0.49-1.17] 0.21
  Yes 228 (41.1) 47 (20.6) Reference Reference
Experience of forced sex, physical abuse, or witnessed physical violence in the home
  No 477 (84.9) 79 (16.6) 0.43 [0.25-0.71] 0.001 0.45 [0.26-0.76] 0.003
  Yes 85 (15.1) 27 (31.8) Reference Reference
Experience of being bullied for one’s physical appearance
  No 427 (76.1) 70 (16.4) 0.53 [0.34-0.85] 0.008 0.58 [0.36-0.93] 0.02
  Yes 134 (23.9) 36 (26.9) Reference Reference
Experience of being bullied for taking medicines
  No 459 (88.4) 73 (15.9) 0.23 [0.13-0.41] <0.0001 0.27 [0.15-0.48] <0.0001
  Yes 60 (11.6) 27 (45) Reference Reference  
Hospital admissions in the past year
  No 510 (90.7) 92 (18) 0.6 [0.31-1.15] 0.12 0.58 [0.30-1.13] 0.11
  Yes 52 (9.3) 14 (26.9) Reference Reference
Behavioral factors/social support
Past history of being in a romantic relationship that did not involve sex
  Never had a boyfriend/girlfriend 479 (85.4) 83 (17.3) 0.54 [0.31-0.92] 0.02 0.65 [0.36-1.18] 0.16
  Yes, in the past or current 82 (14.6) 23 (28) Reference Reference
Satisfaction with the way I look (physical appearance)
  I am very happy with the way I look 460 (82) 77 (16.7) 0.5 [0.30-0.82] 0.006 0.54 [0.33-0.89] 0.02
  I am somewhat/ not at all satisfied with the way I look 101 (18) 29 (28.7) Reference Reference
Use of alcohol in the past 30 days
  Never 547 (97.3) 100 (18.3) 0.34 [0.12-0.96] 0.04 0.37 [0.13-1.07] 0.07
  Once a month or more 15 (2.7) 6 (40) Reference Reference
HIV disclosure status*
  Disclosed and have shared with someone 273 (48.6) 51 (18.7) 1.19 [0.65-2.17] 0.64 0.90 [0.47-1.75] 0.54
  Disclosed, have not shared with anyone 184 (32.7) 38 (20.7) 1.35 [0.72-2.53] 1.19 [0.62-2.28]
  Not disclosed 105 (18.7) 17 (16.2) Reference Reference
  Age at disclosure 12.3 (1.6, 4.6)   1.27 [1.11-1.47] 0.0008 1.31 [1.11-1.56] 0.002
Bio-clinical parameters
  Child on ART
  No 36 (6.4) 4 (11.1) 0.52 [0.18-1.50] 0.23 0.54 [0.18-1.56] 0.25
  Yes 526 (93.6) 102 (19.4) Reference Reference
Efavirenz based ART regimen
  No 526 (93.6) 103 (19.6) 2.68 [0.81-8.90] 0.11 2.75 [0.82-9.19] 0.10
  Yes 36 (6.4) 3 (8.3) Reference Reference
Second line ART regimen
  No 491 (87.4) 94 (19.1) 1.16 [0.60-2.25] 0.65 1.18 [0.60-2.31] 0.63
  Yes 71 (12.6) 12 (16.9) Reference Reference
History of TB treatment
  No 309 (55) 61 (19.7) 1.14 [0.74-1.74] 0.56 1.13 [0.74-1.75] 0.56
  Yes 253 (45) 45 (17.8) Reference Reference
Initial WHO stage
  WHO stage 1-2 160 (28.7) 28 (17.5) 0.88 [0.55-1.43] 0.61 0.91 [0.56-1.47] 0.71
  WHO Stage 3-4 398 (71.3) 77 (19.3) Reference Reference
  Most recent CD4 count 516 (307, 509)   1 [1.00-1.00] 0.08 1 [1.00-1.00] 0.12
HIV immunological classification
  None or not significant 235 (46.2) 32 (13.6) 0.58 [0.31-1.08] 0.04 0.6 [0.32-1.13] 0.05
  Mild 112 (22) 15 (13.4) 0.57 [0.27-1.19] 0.57 [0.27-1.19]
  Advanced 68 (13.4) 18 (26.5) 1.33 [0.64-2.77] 1.35 [0.64-2.82]
  Severe 94 (18.5) 20 (21.3) Reference Reference
Current nutritional status
  Normal 544 (96.8) 100 (18.4) 0.45 [0.17-1.23] 0.12 0.38 [0.13-1.05] 0.06
  Malnourished 18 (3.2) 6 (33.3) Reference Reference
  BMI for age z-score −0.88 (1.18, 561)   0.96 [0.80-1.14] 0.61 0.89 [0.74-1.08] 0.24
  Height for age z-score −1.79 (1.16, 561)   0.93 [0.78-1.12] 0.46 0.87 [0.72-1.06] 0.17