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Table 1 Characteristics of Participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Mild Alzheimer Disease (AD) at Baseline

From: Motivational processes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: results from the Motivational Reserve in Alzheimer’s (MoReA) study

Characteristic Baseline     FU  
  Totala (n = 111) MCI (n = 64)a Mild AD (n = 47)a p b Totala (n = 97) p b
Age, years 75.3 (8.1) 73.2 (7.4) 78.0 (8.3) .002** 76.2 (8.5) .000***
Sex, % Female 53.2 43.8 66.0 .021*   
Education, years 12.0 (2.7) 12.3 (2.5) 11.7 (3.0) .224   
Activities of Daily Living (Barthel) 95.7 (11.9) 99.1 (4.1) 91.0 (16.9) .000*** 95.0 (12.5) .261
Instrumental ADL Self-report (Bayer-ADL) 2.7 (1.5) 2.4 (1.1) 3.1 (1.8) .027* 2.7 (1.8) .345
Instrumental ADL Informant-report (Bayer-ADL) 3.7 (2.3) 2.5 (1.5) 5.2 (2.2) .000*** 4.0 (2.4) .002**
Cognitive status (MMSE) 25.3 (3.3) 27.1 (2.0) 22.9 (3.0) .000*** 24.9 (3.8) .037*
Verbal Intelligence (WST) 30.6 (6.2) 31.9 (6.0) 28.7 (6.1) .006**   
Episodic Verbal Memoryc −0.001 (.75) 0.42 (.61) −0.58 (.51) .000*** -.09 (.8) .000***
Episodic Nonverbal Memoryc −0.007 (.86) 0.43 (.77) −0.60 (.60) .000*** .01 (.9) .442
Semantic Memoryc 0.005 (.82) 0.35 (.58) −0.47 (.85) .000*** -.23 (.9) .000***
Visuoconstructive abilityc −0.01 (.89) 0.38 (.65) −0.55 (.89) .000*** −.04 (.9) .409
Attention/cognitive speedc 0.0001 (.77) 0.28 (.66) −0.38 (.75) .000*** −.16 (1.1) .033*
Executive Functionc −0.03 (.71) 0.28 (.66) −0.44 (.55) .000*** −.19 (1.1) .065
Global Cognitionc −0.005 (.62) 0.36 (.45) −0.51 (.43) .000*** −.11 (.8) .000***
Depression Self-report (GDS) 3.3 (2.6) 3.1 (2.7) 3.6 (2.5) .412 2.9 (2.6) .513
Depression Informant-report (GDS) 4.3 (3.4) 3.6 (3.3) 5.2 (3.4) .013* 3.5 (2.9) .283
Depression Clinical Rating (CSDD) 3.0 (3.9) 2.9 (3.4) 3.1 (4.5) .904 3.8 (3.9) .112
Apathy Self-report (AES) 31.5 (6.6) 30.8 (7.2) 32.5 (5.6) .186 31.0 (6.9) .273
Apathy Informant-report (AES) 37.2 (11.3) 35.7 (11.7) 39.3 (10.5) .101 38.0 (11.7) .138
Apathy Clinical Rating (AES) 35.0 (7.5) 33.7 (7.9) 36.9 (6.6) .027* 34.6 (8.8) .292
Neuropsychiatric Inventory Total 6.8 (10.7) 6.3 (9.7) 7.5 (11.9) .561 6.9 (9.5) .910
Activities (self-report) 32.3 (10.3) 34.1 (9.7) 29.7 (10.7) .027* 32.9 (11.5) .980
Perceived Social Support 4.2 (.54) 4.1 (0.6) 4.2 (0.5) .445 4.2 (.6) .617
  1. Abbreviations: MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, WST Wortschatztest (Vocabulary Test), GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, CSDD Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, AES Apathy Evaluation Scale
  2. aUnless otherwise specified, the data represent the mean (SD)
  3. bP value of t or χ 2 tests. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001
  4. cAverage of z scores. See Methods section for included tests