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Table 2 Brain regions activations that correlate with estradiol levels in naturally cycling women throughout the different experimental phases of the paradigm

From: Contribution of estradiol levels and hormonal contraceptives to sex differences within the fear network during fear conditioning and extinction

Experimental phase Correlation Brain regions x y z Cluster size t value p value FWE
Fear conditioning Positive Posterior cingulate cortex 12 −34 46 70 3.10 0.033
Posterior insular cortex 44 −38 24 116 3.22 0.034
Amygdala 16 2 12 140 3.32 0.037
Hypothalamus −12 0 −8 33 2.71 0.039
Anterior insular cortex 36 28 6 138 3.09 0.051
Negative Orbitofrontal cortex −16 34 −24 21 3.21 0.038
Subgenual anterior cingulate cortex −6 18 −18 48 3.00 0.039
Shock delivery (unconditioned responses) Positive Hypothalamus 8 4 −32 357 4.11 0.015
Middle insular cortex −40 2 8 311 3.53 0.040
Negative Orbitofrontal cortex −14 34 −18 44 3.40 0.011
Late extinction learning Positive Subgenual anterior cingulate cortex −14 26 −14 30 2.88 0.028
Negative Middle insular cortex −36 4 16 62 3.27 0.024
Early extinction recall Positive Parahippocampus −30 2 −20 183 5.35 0.001
Subgenual anterior cingulate cortex 10 12 −18 64 4.39 0.002
Anterior insular cortex 32 18 12 82 4.35 0.003
Anterior insular cortex −62 10 0 1595 5.34 0.005
Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex 10 24 40 91 4.13 0.005
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex −14 40 −26 572 4.37 0.014
Middle cingulate cortex −4 0 36 76 3.33 0.024
Orbitofrontal cortex −16 52 −18 572 3.94 0.034
  1. For each experimental phase (fear conditioning, unconditioned responses ‘shock delivery’, late extinction learning and early extinction recall), correlations between brain activations and estradiol levels are listed. ‘Positive’ and ‘negative’ refer to the direction of the correlation. For each brain region, Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) coordinates are reported along with cluster size, t value and p value (family-wise error corrected). Note that all these analyses were performed only in naturally cycling women (excluding men and women using oral contraceptives). Only brain regions from the fear conditioning and extinction networks are reported