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Table 2 Psychometrics of stigma/attitudes measures

From: Mental health literacy measures evaluating knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking: a scoping review

Measures Developer/Author Reliability Validity & responsiveness Content
1. Social Distance (SD) Bogardus, 1925 [49]    
  Link Social Distance scale (1987) Link et al., 1987 [107] αa = .74; .75; .92 CS; CR/CV; D; FA A
  Bogardus Social Distance Scale (modified) Angermeyer & Matschinger ., 2003 [44] αa = .90 FA
  Social distance scale Link, 1983 [104] αa = .85, .91; CS
  Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) Evans-Lacko & Rose et al., 2011 [69] αa = .85;  
kb = .75
  RIBS- Japanese (RIBS-J) Yamaguchi et al., 2014 [141] αa = .83 CC; FA
Lin’s Pcb = .71
  Social Contact Scale Jackson & Heatherington, 2006 [91] α = .55-.75 FA
  The Social Supports Acceptance Scale (SSAS) Mansouri & Dowell, 1989 [114] α = .80-.94 CS; R
2. Opinions about Mental Illness (OMI) Cohen & Struening, 1962 [59]   CS; FA A
  OMI Struening & Cohen, 1963 [128] αa = .299-.80 FA
  OMI in Chinese Community scale (OMICC) Ng & Chan, 2000 [123] αa = .87 (.43-.72) FA
3. Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) Taylor & Dear, 1981 [134] αa = .62-.90 CS; D; FA A
  Fear and Behavioural Intentions (FABI) Svensson et al., 2011 [131] αa = .80  
kb = .29-.54
  Mental Health Attitude Survey for Police Clayfield et al., 2011 [58] αa = .87 CS; CV; FA
4. Devaluation-Discrimination tool (DD) Link 1987 [105] αa = .73-.83 CS A
  Perceived Discrimination Devaluation (PDD) Interian et al., 2010 [89] αa = .80 CS; CV/CR; FA
  Public stigma Moses, 2009 [121] αa = .76 CV; CS; D
Kc = .79-.90
  Stigma-Devaluation Scale (SDS) Dalky, 2012 [64] αa = .87 FA
  Depression is a Matter of Will Aromaa et al., 2010 [45]   CS; FA
5. Depression Stigma scale (DSS) Griffiths et al., 2004 [79] αa = .75-.82 DS; CV; D; FA A
rb = .86 (p = .001)
6. Attribution Questionnaire (AQ) Corrigan et al., 2003 [61] αa = .70-.96 CS; FA A
  AQ-27 Brown, 2008 [53] αa = .60-.93 CV; FA
ICCb = .72-.90
  r-AQ Pinto et al., 2012 [125] αa = .70 FA
7. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) Ritsher et al., 2003 [126] αa = .84-.98 CS; CC; D; FA; P C
rb = .92 (.61-.91) (p < .05) ICCb = .78
  Parents’ Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (PISMI) Zisman-llani et al., 2013 [142] αa = .61-.78 FA
  ISMI Chinese (ISMIS-C) Lien et al., 2014 [103] αa = .90; CS; FA
ICC = .36-.73
  ISMI-10 Boyd et al., 2014 [24] αa = .75 CT; CC; CS
8. Perceived dangerousness (PD) Link, et al., 1987 [106] αa = .85 CS A
  Link Stigma Scale (dangerousness) Bagley & King, 2005 [46] αa > .80 CS; CR; D
  Dangerousness Scale (DS) Penn et al., 1994 [124] αa = .78 CS
9. British Omnibus National Survey (ONS) Kobau et al., 2010 [100] αa = .66-.69 CV; CC; FA A
  Changing Mind Svensson et al., 2011 [131] αa = .19-.46  
rb:Poor to moderate
10. Self-stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH) Vogel et al., 2006 [136] αa = .88 CS; P; D; FA C
rb = .72
11. Self-stigma of Mental Illness (SSMIS) Corrigan et al., 2006 [63] αa = .64-.91; CS; D C
rb = .62-.82
  SSMIS-Short Form Corrigan et al., 2012 [62] αa = .22-.87 CS; D
12. Attitudes to Mental Illness Questionnaire (AMID) Luty et al., 2006 [108] rb = .70; .93 CC; FA A
13. Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH) Komiya et al., 2000 [101] αa = .72 CS; CR; FA D
14. Affective Reaction Scale Penn et al., 1994 [124] αa = .86 CS A
15. Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC) Brohan et al., 2013 [52] αa = .78; CV; DV B
Lin’s Pc b = .88, 89 (p < .001)
kb = 0.45-0.89
Kc = .62-.97
  Questionnaire on Anticipated Discrimination (QUAD) Gabbidon et al., 2013 [72] αa = .86; CV B
Lin’s Pcc = .81
kb = .41-.80
16. Mental Illness: Clinician’s Attitudes (MICA) Kassam et al., 2010 [94] αa = .79 CV; DV; FA; R A
Lin’s Pc b = .80 (p < .001)
  MICA-v4 Gabbidon et al., 2013 [73] αa = .72; CV; FA
r it a ≥ .2
17. Day’s Mental Illness Scale (DMISS) Day et al., 2007 [65] αa = .71-.86 CS; FA A
18. ADHD Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ) Kellison et al., 2010 [98] αa = .55-.93; CS; CV; DV; FA A
ICCb = .71(.55-.73)
  Stigmatization towards Adults ADHD Fuermaier et al., 2012 [71] αa = .91 (.61-.87) CS
19. Rejection Experiences Link, 1987 [105] αa = .73-.85 CS; CR; CV; D B
Kc = .79-.90
20. Generalized Anxiety Stigma Scale (GASS) Griffiths et al., 2011 [81] αa = .86-0.91 CR; CS; CV; D; FA A
rb = .55,.58,.91 (p < .0001, .001)
21. Relatives’ opinions toward Schizophrenia Magliano et al., 1999 [111] αa = .56-.66; CS; FA A
Kb = .36-.84
  Questionnaire on the Opinions About Mental Illness (QO) Magliano et al., 2004 [112] αa = .42-.72; FA A
kc = .50-1.0
22. EMIC Chowdhury et al., 2000 [57] αa = .66-.76;   A
Kc = .77-.89
23. Stigma Concerns about Mental Health Care (SCAMHC) Interian et al., 2010 [89] αa = .69 CS; CV; CR; FA D
24. Latino Scale for Antidepressant Scale (LSAS) Interian et al., 2010 [89] αa = .66 CS; CV; CT; FA D
25. Devaluation of Consumer Families Scale Struening et al., 2001 [129] αa = .82 CV; FA A
26. Devaluation of consumers scale Struening et al., 2001 [129] αa = .71-.77 CV; FA A
27. Consumer Experiences of Stigma Questionnaire (CESQ) Bagley & King, 2005 [46] αa = .79-.82 CC; CS; CR; D; FA B
28. Attitudes towards Depression and Its Treatment (ATDT) Gabriel & Violato, 2010 [74] αa = .57-.79 CT; FA A
29. Stigmatization Scale Harvey, 2001 [83] αa = .90, .94 CS; D; FA; CR B
30. Psychiatric Skepticism Scale (PSS) Swami & Furnham, 2011 [132] αa = .92;.94 CS; FA D
31. Emotional Reactions Angermeyer & Matschinger, 2003 [44]   CS; FA A
32. Labeling of mental illness Angermeyer & Matschinger, 2003 [44] kc = 0.85   A
33. Personal Attributes Angermeyer & Matschinger, 2003 [44]   CS; FA A
34. Depression Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ) Botega et al., 1992 [50]   FA A
R-DAQ Haddad et al., 2015 [82] αa = .84; CT; CS; CV; FA A
ICCb = .62
35. Attitudes Toward psychiatry-30 Burra et al., 1982 [55] r it a = .10-.64; CC D
Split-half ra = .89, .90;
ICCb = .51-.87
36. Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) Kassam et al., 2012 [97] αa = .78; .79; .82 CS; FA; CT; R A
r it a = -.13-.57;
ICCb = .66 (p < .001)
37. Stigma Scale King et al., 2007 [99] αa = .87 (.64-.87); CS; CC; FA A
kb = .41-.71
Chinese Stigma Scale (CSS) Ho et al., 2015 [87] αa = .83 (.58-.84) CC; FA A
38. Stigma Experiences Scale Stuart et al., 2005 [130] αa = .91 CS B
KR-20a = .83;
39. Attitudes Toward Serious Mental Illness Scale-Adolescent Watson et al., 2005 [139]   FA A
40. Self reported prejudiced attitudes Andersson et al., 2010 [43] αa = .78 FA A
41. Self-Stigma of Depression Scale Barney et al., 2010 [47] αa = .87 CS; CV; FA C
ICCb = .63 (p = .000)
42. Employer Attitude Questionnaire (EAQ) Diksa & Rogers, 1996 [66]   FA A
43. 15-Item Stigma Questionnaire Gibbons et al., 2012 [75] αa = .85; CC; CS; CV; CT B
ICCb = .75
44. Attitudes of Nursing Staff towards Co-Workers Returning from Psychiatric and Physical Illnesses Glozier et al., 2006 [76] αa = .76-.88 CS A
45. Self-Esteem and Stigma Questionnaire (SESQ) Hayward et al., 2002 [84] αa = .71-.79; CS A
rb = .63 (p < .0001)
46. Test of Knowledge About ADHD (KADD) Hepperlen et al., 2002 [36] αa = .81-.82; FA A
47. Beliefs toward Mental Illness (BMI) Hirai & Clum, 2000 [86] αa = .91; CS; CC; FA A
r it = (.22 < r < .72)
48. Depression Self-Stigma Scale (DSSS) Kanter, 2008 [92] αa = .79-.95; CS; CC; FA C
r it = .44-.83
49. General Attitude Questionnaire Lam et al., 2005 [102] αa = .88-.93   A
rb = .72-.94
50. Secrecy Link, 1987 [105] αa = .73-.83 CS C
51. Withdrawal Link, 1987 [105] α = .73-.83 CS C
52. Attitudes to Severe Mental Illness (ASMI) Madianos et al., 2012 [110] αa = .88(.79-.86); CS; P; FA A
rb = .89-.92 (p < .0001)
53. Affiliate Self-Stigma Scale Mak & Cheung et al., 2008 [113] αa = .94-.95; CS; P; FA C
r it = .51-.81
Self-Stigma Scale-Short (SSS-S) Wu et al., 2015 [140] αa = .95 CC; CS; FA C
54. Knowledge Test of Mental Illness (KT) Michaels & Corrigan, 2013 [116] rb = .50-.70 (p < .05; .001) CC; CS A
55. Attitudes Toward Social Competence and Integration of People with Mental Illness Minnebo & Acker et al., 2004 [117] αa = .77; .79 FA A
56. Client Attitude Questionnaire Morrison & Becker, 1975 [120] rb = .90; .93   ?
57. Libertarian Mental Health Ideology Scale (LMHIS) Nevid & Morrison, 1980 [122] αa = .81-.94 CS; FA D
58. Personal stigma scale Schneider et al., 2011 [127] αa = .62-.92 FA A
59. Child stigma scale Moses, 2009 [121] αa = .81 CV; CS; D C
kc = .79-.90
60. Beliefs and attitudes toward people diagnosed with psychosis Serra et al., 2013 [39] αa = .69 FA A
61. Stigma of Depression Scale Vega et al., 2010 [135] αa = .69 FA A
62. Perceptions of Stigmatization by Others for Seeking Help (PROSH) Vogel et al., 2009 [137] αa = .78-.91 CS; CC; FA D
rb = .82 (p < .001)
63. The Stigma Inventory for Mental Illness Karidi et al., 2014 [93] αa = .90 (.75, .85); CT; CS; CC; FA C
rb = .80 (p < .001)
64. Peer Mental Health Stigmatization Scale McKeague et al., 2015 [115] αa = .80 (.70, .75); CT; CS; D; FA A
rb = .65, 75
65. Endorsed and Anticipated Stigma Inventory (EASI) Vogt et al., 2014 [138] r it = .47-.75 CT; CV; D; FA A & D
  1. aInternal consistency reliability: Cronbach alpha (α), Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR-20), item to total correlation (r it), split-half reliability; btest-retest reliability: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), weighted kappa (k), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), Lin’s Pc; c inter-rater reliability: weighted kappa (k), Lin’s Pc
  2. CT Content validity, CS Construct validity, CR Criterion validity, CV Convergent validity, CC Concurrent validity, D Discriminant validity, FA Factor analysis, R Responsiveness, DV Divergent validity, P Predictive validity
  3. A Stigma against mental illness or the mentally ill, B Experienced stigma, C self-stigma, D stigma against help-seeking, treatment; mental health institution or psychiatry, ? not reported