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Table 1 Characteristics of studies evaluating the validity of electronic self-monitoring tools of mood compared to validated clinically administrated rating scales for depression and mania in patients with bipolar disorder listed according to year of publication. N = 206

From: Electronic self-monitoring of mood using IT platforms in adult patients with bipolar disorder: A systematic review of the validity and evidence

Author, Country, year of publication Design IT platform, name of tool Sample size, setting, age, bipolar type I Self-monitoring frequency, follow-up Blinding of outcome assessor Rating scale Corresponding days between self-monitoring data and ratings in analyses Correlation analyses Missing self-monitored data
Whybrow PC et al., USA, Canada & Germany, 2003 [12] Longitudinal Computer, ChronoRecord 80, Outpatient, 38.67 (SD 10.86), 72.5 % Daily, 3 months NA HDRSa,YMRSb Yes Pearson: HDRS: r = −0.683 (p < 0.001) 6.1 % (SD 9.3)
YMRS non-significant
Bauer M et al., USA, Canada & Germany, 2004 [54] Longitudinal Computer, ChronoRecord 80, Outpatient, 38.67 (SD 10.86), 72.5 % Daily, 3 months NA HDRS,YMRS Yes Pearson: HDRS: r = −0.683 (p < 0.001) 6.1 % (SD 9.3)
YMRS non-significant
Linear mixed model coefficient: HDRS: β = −0.303 (p < 0.001)
YMRS non-significant
Bauer M et al., USA, Canada & Germany, 2008 [55] Longitudinal Computer, ChronoRecord 27 Inpatient & 80 Outpatient, Daily, NA Yes YMRS, MRS c Yes Pearson: YMRS: r = 0.825 (p < 0.001) NA
Linear mixed model coefficient: YMRS: β = 0.229 (p = 0.001)
Depp CA et al., USA, 2010 [56] Longitudinal PDA, PRISM 10, Outpatient, 41.0 (SD 13.7) Daily, 2 weeks NA MADRSd, YMRS NA Pearson: MADRS: r = 0.841 (p = 0.018) 22 % (SD 14)
YMRS non-significant
Depp CA et al., USA, 2012 [58] RCT Self-monitoring using smartphone 18, Outpatient, 44.0 (SD 14), 90.9 % Twice/ day in fixed time blocks, 12 weeks Yes MADRSd, YMRS Yes Pearson: Baseline: MADRS: r = −0.567 (p = 0.014) 57.9 % (SD 26.6)
YMRS non-significant
6 weeks: MADRS: r = −0.542 (p = 0.028)
YMRS: r = 0.520 (p = 0.032)
Faurholt-Jepsen M et al., Denmark, 2014 [59] Longitudinal Smartphone, MONARCA 17, Outpatient, 33.4 (SD 9.5), 82.4 % Daily, 3 months Yes HDRS, YMRS Yes Linear mixed model coefficient: HRDS: β = −0.051 (p < 0.001) NA
YMRS non-significant
Schärer LO et al., Germany, 2015 [64] Longitudinal Computer, PDA, smartphone, Personal Life-Chart app 54, Outpatient, 40.6 Daily, 18 months Yes IDS-Ce, YMRS Yes Spearman correlation coefficient: IDS-C: r = 0.60–0.62 (p-value not shown) NA
YMRS: r = 0.17–0.39 (p-value not shown)
  1. aHamilton Depression Rating Scale
  2. bYoung Mania Rating Scale
  3. cBech-Rafaelsen Manic Rating Scale
  4. dMontgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale
  5. eThe Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, clinician-rated