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Table 3 Estimated regression coefficients of socio-demographic variables on self-reported sleep and energy before and after correcting for heterogeneity (N = 1002)

From: Is adjustment for reporting heterogeneity necessary in sleep disorders? results from the Japanese World Health Survey

  Before correction After correction
(Ordered probit model) (CHOPIT model)
  β p value β p value
Age (years) 0.010 0.00 0.008 0.01
Women (vs. men) 0.161 0.05 0.107 0.27
Years of schooling 0.001 0.97 −0.026 0.16
Number of morbidities (reference: none)     
 One 0.137 0.14 0.127 0.20
 Two 0.646 0.00 0.650 0.00
 Three or more 0.808 0.00 0.847 0.00
No regular exercise (vs. regular exercise) 0.104 0.16 0.194 0.03
Smoker (vs. non-smoker) 0.011 0.91 0.042 0.70
Alcohol consumer (vs. non-alcoholic) 0.108 0.32 0.082 0.53
  1. Note: β regression coefficient; CHOPIT Compound Hierarchical Ordered Probit