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Table 1 Transdiagnostic online self-report instruments and the number of studies that report psychometric characteristics (between parentheses)

From: Validation of online psychometric instruments for common mental health disorders: a systematic review

Instrument Purpose N studies Population / setting Countries in which the studies were conducted Internal consistency (alpha) Test-retest reliability Factor structure Mean score difference with paper version Convergent validity Criterion validity (AUC)
Anxiety           
BAI Symptom severity 3 G1, P3 SE .88–.89 (2)   4 factors (1) None, lower (2)   
Depression and anxiety          
CIDI-SF Diagnosis & screening 1 G1 SE       (1)
DASS Symptom severity 1 G5 US .93–.95 (1) (1)    (1)  
HADS Screening & symptom severity 5 G1, G5, P5, P7 NZ, SE, UK .76–.88 (5) (1) 3 factors (2) None (2) (1)  
SQ-48 Screening & symptom severity 1 G1, P1 NL .84–.93 (1)   9 factors (1)   (1) .75–.91 (1)
WB-DAT Screening 1 P8 CA       (1)
WSQ Screening 1 G1 NL       .65–.81 (1)
Depression and anxiety (postpartum)          
PDM Screening 1 G1 US .84–.88 (1)   2 factors (1)   (1)  
  1. G1: General population; G2: Adult females; G3: Adult males; G4: General teenage population; G5: Student population; G6: General young adult population; G7: Veteran population; P1: Patient population; P2: Adult psychiatric outpatients; P3: Adult social phobia patients; P4: Adult GP patients; P5: Hearing impaired clinical population; P6: Deaf population; P7: Adults with chronic fatigue syndrome; P8: Participants in studies of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; AU: Australia; CA: Canada; DK: Denmark; ES: Spain; NL: Netherlands; NO: Norway; NZ: New Zealand; SE: Sweden; TW: Taiwan; UK: United Kingdom; US: United States; AUC: Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve