Skip to main content

Table 2 Online self-report instruments for depression and the number of studies that report psychometric characteristics (between parentheses)

From: Validation of online psychometric instruments for common mental health disorders: a systematic review

Instrument Purpose N studies Population / setting Countries in which the studies were conducted Internal consistency (alpha) Test-retest reliability Factor structure Mean score difference with paper version Convergent validity Criterion validity (AUC)
Depression           
BDI Symptom severity 2 G1 SE .88 (1)   3 factors (1) Higher (1)   
BDI-II Symptom severity 2 G1 SE .87–.95 (2)    None, lower (2)   
CES-D Screening & symptom severity 6 G1, G2, G4, G5 NL, TW, US .89–.93 (5)   2–4 factors (2) None (2) (2) .84–.90 (2)
CES-D (7-item) Symptom severity 1 G5 ES .82 (1)   1 factors (1) None (1) (1)  
CES-D (10-item) Symptom severity 1 G1 US .86 (1)      
CUDOS Screening & symptom severity 1 P2 US .93 (1)    None (1) (1)  
EDS Screening 1 G1 NL .87 (1)     (1)  
HSCL-10 Screening 1 G4 DK + NO .87 (1)      .79 (1)
ISP-D Screening 2 G1 TW   (1)     (1)
K-10 Screening & symptom severity 1 G1 NL .90 (1)     (1) .81 (1)
K&D mood scale Symptom severity 1 G5 US .75–.79 (1) (1)    (1)  
MADRS-S Symptom severity 6 G1, P3 SE .73–.90 (5)   3 factors (1) None (4)   
MDI Screening & symptoms severity 1 G4 NL .82 (1)     (1) .89 (1)
MDRS-22 Screening & symptom severity 1 G3 AU    6 factors (1)   (1)  
Moodscope Symptom severity 1 P4 UK      (1)  
PDI MDD Diagnosis & screening 1 P1 US      (1) (1)
PHQ-9 BSL Symptom severity 1 P6 UK .81 (1)   2 factors (1)   (1)  
Single item depr. scale Screening & symptom severity 1 G1 NL      (1) .71 (1)
USDI Symptom severity 1 G5 AU .95 (1)   3 factors (1)   (1)  
ZDS Symptom severity 1 G5 UK .89 (1)     (1)  
Postpartum depression          
EPDS Screening, symptom severity 1 G2 unclear .90 (1)   3 factors (1)   (1)  
PDSS Screening & symptom severity 1 G2 US .97 (1)     (1)  
  1. G1: General population; G2: Adult females; G3: Adult males; G4: General teenage population; G5: Student population; G6: General young adult population; G7: Veteran population; P1: Patient population; P2: Adult psychiatric outpatients; P3: Adult social phobia patients; P4: Adult GP patients; P5: Hearing impaired clinical population; P6: Deaf population; P7: Adults with chronic fatigue syndrome; P8: Participants in studies of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; AU: Australia; CA: Canada; DK: Denmark; ES: Spain; NL: Netherlands; NO: Norway; NZ: New Zealand; SE: Sweden; TW: Taiwan; UK: United Kingdom; US: United States; AUC: Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve