Skip to main content

Table 3 Online self-report instruments for GAD, panic disorder and agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, OCD and PTSD, and the number of studies that report psychometric characteristics (between parentheses)

From: Validation of online psychometric instruments for common mental health disorders: a systematic review

Instrument Purpose N studies Population/setting Countries in which the studies were conducted Internal consistency (alpha) Test-retest reliability Factor structure Mean score difference with paper version Convergent validity Criterion validity (AUC)
GAD           
  GAD-1 Screening 1 G1 NL       .78 (1)
  GAD-2 Screening 1 G1 NL       .76 (1)
  GAD-7 Screening & symptom severity 1 G1 NL .86 (1)   1 factor (1)   (1) .77 (1)
  GAD-7 BSL Symptom severity 1 P6 UK .88 (1)   1 factor (1)   (1)  
  PDI GAD Diagnosis & screening 1 P1 US      (1) (1)
Panic disorder and agoraphobia           
  ACQ Symptom severity 2 G1 AU, SE .81–.84 (2)    None, lower (2)   
  BSQ Symptom severity 2 G1 AU, SE .84–.86 (2)    None, lower (2)   
  CIDI-Panic subscale Diagnosis & screening 1 G1 SE       (1)
  MI Symptom severity 2 G1 AU, SE .94–.97 (2)    None, higher (2)   
  PDSS-SR item 4 Screening 1 G1 NL       .68 (1)
  PDSS-SR item 5 Screening 1 G1 NL       .61 (1)
  VS-CMD-agoraphobia Screening 1 G1 NL       .73 (1)
Social phobia           
  LSAS-SR Symptom severity 2 G1, P3 SE .93–.94 (2)    None (1)   
  SIAS Symptom severity 3 G5, P3 SE, US .86–.93 (3)   1 factor (1) None (2) (2)  
  SPIN Symptom severity 1 G1 TW .94 (1) (1) 3 factors (1)    .87 (1)
  SPS Symptom severity 2 G5, P3 SE, US .89–.93 (2)   1 factor (1) None (2) (1)  
Specific phobia (aviophobia)           
  FAS Screening & symptom severity 1 G1 + G5 US .94–.99 (1)      .99 (1)
OCD           
  C-FOCI Screening 1 G4 US .73 (1)      
  OBQ-44 Symptom severity 1 G5 US .97 (1)    None (1) (1)  
  OCI Symptom severity 1 G5 US .94 (1)    None (1) (1)  
  PI Symptom severity 1 G1 US (mainly)    4 factors (1)    
PTSD           
  NSES Diagnosis & symptom severity 1 G1, G7 US    4 factors (1)    
  PCL-C Symptom severity 1 G5 US .91 (1)    None (1)   
  PSS Screening & symptom severity 1 G5 US .92–.94 (1)   4 factors (1)   (1)  
  TSS Symptom severity 1 G5 US .95–.96 (1)    None (1)   
  PTSD (peripartum)           
    PPQ (modified) Screening & symptom severity 1 G2 US .90 (1)   3 factors (1)   (1) (1)
  1. G1: General population; G2: Adult females; G3: Adult males; G4: General teenage population; G5: Student population; G6: General young adult population; G7: Veteran population; P1: Patient population; P2: Adult psychiatric outpatients; P3: Adult social phobia patients; P4: Adult GP patients; P5: Hearing impaired clinical population; P6: Deaf population; P7: Adults with chronic fatigue syndrome; P8: Participants in studies of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; AU: Australia; CA: Canada; DK: Denmark; ES: Spain; NL: Netherlands; NO: Norway; NZ: New Zealand; SE: Sweden; TW: Taiwan; UK: United Kingdom; US: United States; AUC: Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve